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The concept of an information system is used in organizations in reference to a computer system which provides the management and other personnel with updated information on the organizational performance such as current inventory and sales. The organizational information systems are designed/developed administered and maintained in order to capture, analyze, quantify, compile, manipulate and share the information. The management information systems are those systems that serve the general, predictable management functions with technological advancements, the enterprise resource planning software and the executive information systems which have improved functionality, integrated and high flexibility. (Hoganson, 2001).
The internet further accelerates the information system processes and information exchange through avenues such as e-mail, intranets and the extranets. It allows for wider accessibility and a faster rate of information exchange. The internet technologies such as web-casting and videoconferencing allows for quick and real-time exchange of information. Other modes of mobile computing in line with the internet communication have also increased the accessibility these include; the multi-functional mobile phones, and the IPad.
Organization's information systems and their functionalities
Organizations implement the information systems for the purposes of improving on efficiency and the effectiveness, to achieve the purpose of implementation, the organization should determine the capabilities of the information system, the work systems and the development/implementation methodologies. The traditional information was composed of executive information systems, the decision support system, management information systems and lastly the transaction processing. The advancement of technology has led to the emergence of new categories of information systems that include:
The enterprise resource planning
Global information systems
Human Resource Management Systems
Information system functionalities
The information system functions are varied, for the Riordan Manufacturing Virtual Organization the functions of the information systems will include:
The document and record management.
This is the most crucial aspect of information system especially for the manufacturing organizations such as the Riordan Manufacturing Virtual Organization, the information in the documents is analyzed, quantified compiled and manipulated to enable the organization to determine the means to create the new products and services, the information also provides the market information such as demand and supply, procurement, shipment and customer billing. (Fairhtorne, 1961)
The documents include accounting, marketing, financial, manufacturing and human resource. The information system serves as the organizational library since the information is collected and indexed according to the requirements and type of the organization.
The information systems improves the accessibility of the information.
Information, this is because the location and retrieval of the archived information involves a direct and logical process. The designing of the information systems employs a very careful plan which outlines how the information is organized and indexed.
Information system as a collaborative tool.
These serve the purpose of data and information sharing through the use of the information systems' software and hardware. The information systems allows the exchange and of data between different departments of the organization and resource sharing in the context of real-time communication, therefore the utilization of the information systems as the collaborative tool in a manufacturing organization such as the Riordan Manufacturing Virtual Organization greatly improves its efficiency.
The information systems enable the analysis of empirical data and the extrapolating of information. Manufacturing and even processing organizations use the extrapolated results in the forecasting and definition of the future trends in the market.
Information systems as Query tools
The information systems functions as the query tools by allowing the sorting and filtering of information in accordance to the management specification and the system administration. These enable the user to find specific information that is needed in performing a given function.
The organizations have a workforce with a varied and wider knowledge base, the information systems ensure a successful navigation of various information levels. The information system administrator helps in ascertaining that the varied collection, retrieval and the analyzation of the systems operate on a common platform. The querying of the information also employs the use of the intelligent agents which customizes the information in order to fit to the individual needs of the organization.
The Human Resource Management Systems
These systems employ the use of the client-server, the Application Service Provider, and the Software. Human Resource Management Systems have increased the administrative control. Human Resource Management Systems encompass; the Payroll, Work Time, HR management Information system, Recruiting and Training (Learning Management System)
The payroll module enables the automation of the pay process through gathering data about the employee's attendance, calculation of various deductions and the taxes, and the generation periodic pay cheque and reports. The work time module collects the standardized time and work related efforts, it provides a broad flexibility for data collection, the distribution of labor and the data analysis features.
The HR management module covers many aspects of HR ranging from the application to the retirement. These include; the system records, the basic demographic, the address data, the training and development plans, and the compensation plan records. The advanced systems provide the ability to read the applications and data entry in relevance to applications of the database fields, through the global interconnections the employers are notified and provided with a good management position and overall control. The Human resource management function involves; recruitment, placement, evaluating, compensation and the development of the organization's employees. (Caldelli & Parmigiani, 2004)
The businesses use the computer based information systems to; produce the pay checks and payroll reports; maintain the personnel records; and enhance Talent Management. The global interconnectivity enables online recruitment and analyzing of personnel usage in organizations; identification of the potential applicants; and the recruitment through online recruiting sites or publications that market to both recruiters and applicants.
The globalization also provides the training module creates the system for organizations to easily administer and track the employee's training and career development efforts. HR managers can also track the education qualifications and skills of their employees, the process of outlining training courses or the web based learning materials are also enabled through the interconnection of the HRMS.
A failure in the operation of a major system of operation of the human resource management system could lead to fatal losses that can cause the fall of an organization. Therefore the main reason for the protection of this system is because it the backbone of all the operations of the organizations which depend on human resource for the utilization of other resources.