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Root-Bernstein puts forward very tacit arguments on the subject of biological evolution in his masterful essay on Darwin's evolution. In his definition, Root-Bernstein approaches the theory of evolution through genetics claiming that evolution occurs as a result of changes in the genetic components of a population over a period of time. He further adds that the genetic changes may not be necessarily noticeable. From observable data, Root-Bernstein avers that for evolution to take place, these genetic changes must occur and must be passed on to newer generations of a specific population. Root-Bernstein presents his evolution claims using qualitative data collected over years and the general trends of population in respect to generational genetic changes.

Root-Bernstein teaches his student on the number of ribs in males and females very scientifically while at the same time divorcing his religious belief from contradiction. Bernstein believes that everything about human belongs should be taken for granted. He taught his students that males have a pair of ribs fewer than females and that females have larger pelvis than male's to allow for childbearing. His scientific explanations on ribs are based on his unique way of regarding religious freedom and scientiic research in equal measure. His scientific claims are backed by observable data especially the continued reference to transitional forms within a population. This ability to walk on the thin line separating religion and science affords him the chance to allow his students to employ their religious freedom and scientific knowledge to make conclusions on his claims.

Lamarck approach to evolution is very scientific its creation of a heated scientific debate notwithstanding. In fact, his claims became the basis for Darwin's later claims on natural selection. Considered the most accomplished promoter of evolution theory, Lamarck was informed by great thought in explaining that evolution as is the gradual process of self-adaption to in which species of a population change their characteristics in response to the inevitable changes of the environment. According to Lamarck, changes in species result to evolution and are by far influenced by the environment within which these species live.

As an extension of Lamarck's views on evolution, Charles Darwin stated that variations (from genetic mutations) are only significant if they afford a species to survive and get preserved within an otherwise trouble laden environment. These variations become a part of that species that are passed on to newer generations under the principle of inheritance to equip them for the struggle of life. It is this trend of species to continue with these variations that |Darwin brands as the principal of preservation or the survival of the fittest. This theory he wholly terms it the rule of natural selection. While the two approaches, of Lamarck and Darwin, competed for international academic approval, modern religious authorities have rubbished them as heights of academic aberrations that have no regard for the divine origin of mankind.

To conclude, lessons learnt from studies in the origin of mankind are many. Of great significance is the need to apply religious freedom and scientific knowledge without contradiction. Many religious authorities have continually regarded scientific exploits on the origin of mankind as deliberate efforts to discredit God for His divine generosity to bequeath life to humans. Taking the inherent religion versus science wars into consideration, it is not just enough to appreciate the ability to walk the thin line between religion and science like Root-Bernstein. The ultimate objective would be to ensure that matters creating controversy between religion and science are approached with utmost sobriety.

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