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The world is grandeur created by a mastermind who has no equal. The soul, religion and belief or faiths, are the first words that pop into the head when we hear the name God. What makes people believe that God exists? Is religion a matter of truth or belief? Is the belief a state of mind? These are among the questions that all religions dread being asked. However, theology tradition states that the more a belief is deemed to be untrue the more the faith the believers are to exercise. Also, the question if religion is a matter of beliefs or states of minds comes up. Scholars have long debated over the issue coming up with various arguments to explain this.
The belief that God exists is not empirical like one of ‘the existence Abominable snowmen or prime numbers existing between 20 and 30 (Pg 150). We; therefore, cannot say that the existence of God as true or false. Philosophers can only argue if the states of mind, in question, are admirable or not.
Therefore, religious beliefs are like any other beliefs. It is just another way of explaining the unexplained, trying to explain the events that take place in the world. For example, a funeral is not true or false, but the words spoken during the ceremony such as afterlife can be questioned. People profess such words with the belief that they will meet up with the person.
A need to believe in the presence of a supernatural being or deity is vital in explaining life and its orderliness. The classical philosophies that try to explain the existence of God are those that I will cover in this thesis.
This argument was brought forth by a guru. In his argument, he drew a large audience around him convincing them that he would explain the existence of God. He took out a dictionary and showed the crowd that the reference book contained the word ‘God’. He argued that since the word was there, with its definition, then He existed. When asked about the existence of fable creatures like fairies and Santa Claus, he refused their existence, but they too were defined in the dictionary. How is it possible to have meaningful words and yet have nothing to answer them? This proves that when a concept is defined, it is not clear if anything will answer to the concept. An example is giving of an advertisement of a partner in dating forums.
This is an example of a definition of a dream partner, the person writing it decides what to put in it, but the world decides if anybody meets the conditions. Thus, this infers that the dream partner may not exist. The advertisement is comprehensible and has sense, but one is not sure if anyone will meet the conditions. Thus, one way of putting it, is the advert has sense but no reference (page, 153).
Therefore, one might be displeased if no one responds to the sign. However, the writer might also add a phrase in a bid to solve this deadlock. For example, by adding the phrase that exists at the end of the sign. The additional phrase might be seen as helpful, but they are not, because, in order for people to get the call, your dream partner must exist.
According to St. Anslem (1033-1109), God is a being "than which nothing greater can be conceived’ (page, 154). In his argument, he addressed the fool found in Psalms 14, who said that, in his heart, there was no God. He understood it exists at least in his understanding. So we can conclude that God exist in reality, as well. Anslem concludes saying that there is no doubt that something than which a greater being cannot be thought exists in both in the understanding and reality (page, 154). Anslem claims to prove God’s existence by definition similar to a mathematical proof and requires no experimental grounds or results from experience. Therefore, when we understand that God exists He surely does exist not only in the understanding. There is an ambiguity between reality and conception because when we compare things in reality and conception, in properties of greatness. The conceived things are seen as greater than the real thing. For example, the sentence “real turkeys are heavier than imagined turkeys’ (page, 157). The turkey imagined turkey, in this case, weighs nothing (not edible), but then we will be limiting the imagination because we can imagine heavier and bigger turkeys. In the context, of comparison between the two is where the argument fails. However, the sentence ‘nothing greater can be conceived’ proves that God does exist.
St. Thomas Aquinas did not accept Anslem’s argument he argued that God is needed in order to explain the orderliness exhibited by the world. He argued that all beings are dependent, and this presupposes that a being that is non-dependent exists. The first cause argument states that, for anything that exists, there must be a reason for its existence. In addition, it is impossible for anything to produce itself and to be its own cause of its existence (page, 159). A deity or a supernatural being, which is extraordinarily self-sufficient, exists in this argument.
The character Demea from Hume’s Dialogue Concerning Natural Religion supports this view. It starts by saying that all beings are dependent on one another, and concludes this argument by saying that a Being, who knows his existence, does exist. Russell admonished this first cause saying that it contradicts itself. First by saying that all beings are dependent on one another and yet saying that a non-dependent being does exist, a being with no previous cause. He said that the conclusion denied what the premise asserts (page, 160). His thought; however, thought as not to matter because the first cause explains his question.
If everything on earth has a previous cause, then this conclusion derives that a being with no previous cause has to exist. In Theology, this is would be a thing that is necessary or causal Sui, a thing that has its own cause (page, 161). Another of Hume’s character, Cleanthes, says that the material world or the universe might be the existing being. This conclusion is fathomable because the qualities, unknown and inconceivable, are bestowed upon it than to any immaterial thing or person.
This first argument tries to address worries present in all humans that are natural and it is inevitable. Human beings are not comfortable with events occurring with no reason. For example, in the big bang theory; we have to think of the cause behind everything that occurs. If we arrive at God as the answer, we then ask what caused God. So we are left in the position of an Indian philosopher who was asked what the world rested on, he said an elephant. When asked what the elephant rested on he said a turtle, finally what the tortoise rested on he begged to change the subject.
The uniformity of nature is another way to express the cosmological argument. It is surprising that all laws of nature hold and the frame of nature does not fall apart (page, 152). For uniformity to be present, God is necessary.
Argument from design
Hume also expressed another reason by presenting the argument of design, which is seen as the center piece of the eighteen century theology, and it still wields powerful influence. Clean the Hume’s character is the one who presents this argument. He views the world as one magnificent machine, with exceptionally many segments, which are accurately adjusted to one another perfectly. This perfection leads us that there is a cause behind everything and that the Author has a mind similar to that of man though He has much larger faculties in relations to the grandeur of work created. The argument strong point is that it is a posterior from experience the design is evident in the daily activities.
After Darwinism, the natural explanation of existence of all living things was presented. The explanation of complex biological systems, as Hume saw it was a biological adaptation. The resemblance of the world to a clock, a vegetable or an animal or, even a knitting loom. The cause of the world is something similar to that of the vegetable. This presentation of causes will go on and on because each and everything, to humans, has a cause.
Human beings see themselves as having a dominion over all other living things. This is attributed to the human free will. We view ourselves as having sovereignty over nature.
The argument between the two, that is the designer and the cosmological order, both present feasible theories to try and explain the existence of God.
As we try and explain whether God exists or not, we are presented by proof of it every day. There is no evidence against the presence of God. The acts of reason and wisdom must be attributed to a source that has an infinite resource of them. God; therefore, grants a portion to each of us, in order for us to live harmoniously.