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Sigmund Freud is a great Austrian neurologist whose studies and deep research definitely had a serious impact on psychoanalysis and many modern personality theories. One of his theories concerning the personality development has a great significance in understanding individuals in an organizational context in class.
According to Freud, each personality contains three main components such as the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is defined as a source of all the instincts and basic wishes or simply the organism’s needs that are sent by the nervous system. Freud considers id to be an unconscious unit that does not interact with reality. All the further contacts with reality provoke another structure of personality that is called the ego. The ego is characterised by a powerful drive that breaks into consciousness and tightly interacts with the reality. The ego is mainly responsible for the process of decision making, though both the id and the ego do not consider the aspect of morality in reasoning. The moral aspect of personality is represented by the superego that distinguishes the right from the wrong.
The main idea suggested by Freud was concerning the origin of the most significant personality processes and the level of conscious awareness during them. According to Freud, the majority of these processes are unconscious including numerous instincts and certain emotions and memories. The issue regarding these three basic personality structures such as the id, the ego, and the superego and their interaction is decided with the help of specific defence mechanisms. The main purpose of these mechanisms is in anxiety prevention that can be evoked by the conflicting demands of every personality. The most powerful and effective defence mechanism in Freud’s theory is repression. It controls the unacceptable id impulses and preserves them below the level of conscious awareness. In such a way all the stressful experiences, memories, and impulses are controlled and reduced through the defence mechanism of repression.