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Birth control is an overall term that is applied referring to numerous techniques that are employed in order to prevent fertilization and affect various stages of pregnancy. These methods of controlling birth include the use of contraception, which works a long way in the prevention f fertilization. There is also the use of contragestion, which involves the blastocyst implantation. Abortion is also among the methods of birth control, and it entails the removal or expulsion of the embryo from one’s uterus. When it comes to the usage of contraception, this includes the application of barrier techniques. These techniques entail the usage of diaphragm or condoms. It also encompasses contraception that is regarded as hormonal or oral contraception. Apart from these kinds of contraception, other contraception is regarded as injectable contraceptives.
Other birth control techniques are those that are regarded as contraceptives. Contraceptives are those methods that are normally undertaken after one has already indulged herself in unprotected sexual intercourse. They are also referred to as the post-coital technique of birth control. It entails the usage of intrauterine devices or the inclusion of the morning after pill.
Prior to the selection of the effective method of birth control for an individual, it is always advisable for one to consult a doctor so that he/she can decide on the best method of birth control that could suit him. The doctor is able to check one’s overall health. One is always asked about his/her sexual frequency and the number of sex partners. This helps him in determining the best technique since different people use different methods. The doctor will now give an individual detailed instruction that include the functioning, risk and effectiveness of the preferred birth control method.
How effective the birth control methods are. The working of birth control is categorized by the various levels of reproduction when the reproduction is said to be active. Any form of contraception that has an overall effect of preventing the sperms from accessing the ova for fertilization to take place is regarded as an agent for contraceptive. These forms of birth control are responsible for functioning once fertilization has already taken place. It curbs the implantation of the fetus placed at the lining of one’s uterus. Once implantation has already taken place, there is an occurrence of an agent responsible for terminating the pregnancy gestation. At this point, the pregnancy is said to be an abortifacient (McFarlane 44). The term contraceptive comes from the word contra, which implies against or contrary. Therefore, fertilization contraceptive means a technique against fertilization. A scientist from France by the name of Étienne-Émile Baulieu created the word contraceptive in the year 1985. He felt the importance using a technique term while illustrating the prevention of implantations. The functioning this technique is not considered mutually exclusive. Most of these contraceptives have more than one function in controlling the fertilization. For instance, IUDs (intrauterine devices) can be used as contraceptives depending on the time when it was put in ones’ body.
Contraception prevents the fertilization of ova during sexual intercourse. The methods employed help in preventing any possibility of sperm being exposed to the ova. These techniques include the usage of diaphragm or condoms. There is also the usage of hormonal contraception, which results in the suppression of ovulation. These hormones can also be administered to the body by means of injections, placement in the vaginal or through oral means. Some of the contraceptives that are administered to the body through oral means include the mini pills, and the contraceptive pill. It is also necessary to note that the hormonal emergency contraception has a dual-purpose usage; this being contraceptive and contraceptive. The working of contragestives involves the usage of chemicals and articles that curb the implantation of a fertilized ovum.
Sterilization involves the employment of surgical means. Some of these techniques include the application of tubal ligation for women. This method involves the cutting of the fallopian tubes. Once the fallopian tube is cut, the sperm is never exposed to the egg for fertilization. The success of this process depends on the kind of sterilization employed, the age of the women undertaking the process, and the extent of damage caused on the tube. It is worth noting that this process to a bigger extent is not reversible. In case of men, the process is referred to as vasectomy. It also involves the cutting the tube that is responsible for conveying sperm to the vagina (vasa deferentia). It is worth noting that the function of the penis is not affected, and in its place, one produces semen. Just as the case in tubal ligation, to a bigger extent the process is not reversible.
NATURAL METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL
This is one of the most uncertain methods of controlling birth. It calls for a high degree of discipline for those practicing this technique. It calls for the partners to strictly observe the woman’s cycle. It includes the importance of regulating the timing of when it is safe to have an intercourse and when it is not. When employing the natural means of birth control, there are two things involved; either practicing the technique of withdrawing or strictly observing the woman’s cycle. In withdrawing, the male should be sober and at the same time extremely responsible. The importance of soberness guides one on when to withdraw and when not. Some women could be experiencing irregular cycles thus one could assume that she is safe only to find that fertilization took place. This reason renders the natural processes of birth control to have more faults that perfection.
This technique has an accuracy of 98%-99.5% within the first six postpartum months. It insists on the importance of only breastfeeding the infants only as their sole source of nutrition. The effectiveness of this technique is highly affected by the introduction of other means of breastfeeding, introduction of feeding formula, and breast milk pumping instead of nursing. In order to make this technique a success, another requirement calls for the mother to breastfeed the children for the duration of four hours during the day and at least duration of six hours at night. Again, the infant should be below six months for its effectiveness. For the process to be named as an effective birth control technique, it is a requirement that the mother of the infant ought not to have had a period after 56 days of post-partum. After the childbirth, the return menstruation is different among different individual. An immense relationship has been evident between the effect of contraceptives and the amount of suckling. The period of effective contraception is usually prolonged by both feeding on demand and at the same time feeding on schedule.
Once the woman observes the necessary standards, her menstruation returns in 14 months prior to giving birth. In case of partners see it convenient to space their children within a period of 18 to 30 months, they normally achieve this by means of breastfeeding. Even, though, the post-partum might not be fertile, the following cycles are fertile. Some women have been reported to complain about the inference of breastfeeding with their fertility even after the resumption of ovulation.
This process involves the fertility awareness where there is a close awareness of her observation and marks of the woman’s fertility signs. It is used in the determination whether the woman is infertile or fertile through accessing of her menstrual cycle. This signs are closely monitored by use of hand or by being assisted by use of fertility monitors. Various techniques could track either one or all three primary signs of fertility sign. These signs include ones’ change in the woman’s basal temperature of the body. This could be detected through inspecting the mucus membrane in the cervix, while also checking the location of the cervix. This technique of checking the basal temperature of the body is known as symptothermal. Existence of other bodily cues, for instance, the mittelschnerz is normally considered as the secondary sign.
Other signs include the calendar-based techniques, which include the rhythm techniques and standard day technique is used while giving the approximations of one’s fertility put on the basis of menstrual cycles that are either too long or that which have a tendency of being experienced once the expected time is much overdue. In order to make sure that one does not get unplanned pregnancy, it is always recommended that one should always abstain from having sex the other times and see to it that one is only involved in sexual activities with their partners during the less fertile periods. If it is necessary for one to engage in sex during the most fertile periods, then one should always practice barrier technique of birth control. This is the only technique that the Roman Catholic recognizes as the sure of birth control. The church argues that this technique does not affect the morphology of one’s body (Bullough 4).
As the name suggests, this method is seen to interrupt the sexual intercourse. This technique could also be referred to as the pullout or the withdrawal technique. This process entails the practice of one ending the intercourse before he ejaculates. One’s sperms are not supposed to be exposed to the vagina. This technique is extremely risky in that the man could miscalculate the maneuver only to withdraw shortly after some ejaculations has been exposed to the vagina. It technique calls for absolute soberness in the part of man to avoid the chances of miscalculations. Cases have been reported with partners who practice this technique claim that they pulled-out only to end up pregnant. This debate has formed a cause of disagreement over the years, why some people argue that there might be risk of becoming pregnant once the vagina is exposed to the pre-ejaculation. Research that has been carried indicates that there is no viable reason of an existence of a viable sperm existing in the fluid.
SEMEN AVOIDANCE CLOSE TO THE VAGINA
Some partners end up practicing non-penetrative sex as a method of avoiding pregnancy to their partners. Some people argue that the technique is safe, since there is no penetration of and thus no pregnancy. The common reaction of the penis under the circumstance would be to produce semen. Once this is done, the semen deposited near the vaginas entrance would mix with the vaginal fluid and get an access into the vagina. Once the semen is lodged inside the vagina, the chances of conception will be high.
This is the only perfect technique of birth control. The reason why this technique is said to be the surest of all methods is from the fact that some techniques could be faulty and not functional as required. One might think that he/she is extremely safe, only to find that one gets pregnant after an intercourse. There also have been some claims that some people’s bodies have a poor response when it comes to assimilating these contraceptives in their bodies. Some people have even reported that some of these contraceptives come out of their bodies without their knowledge. It is also crucial to understand that some barrier contraceptives, for instance, condoms, could tear during the intercourse leaving one completely unprotected and in the risk or either becoming pregnant, contract some sexually transmitted diseases or both.
It is crucial to point out that abstinence is 100% effective technique in case one wants to prevent pregnancy. Though this technique is one of the surest ways of controlling birth, it is evidently clear not many people are ready to follow this avenue. In most populations, there exists an immense danger of pregnancy because of nonconsensual sex.
DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUE FOR FEMALE
As research continues to come up with the most effective contraceptives, there is a generation of Praneem. This polyherbal tablet would be of importance to the women since it would be a vaginal tablet. It is being researched in India to work as a microbicide and a spermicide; it would also be active against HIV. There is also the inclusion of the BufferGel, which is also a spermicidal gel, which also be particularly vital from its activity against HIV. Recent developments have also researched on the importance of coming up with duet. This is disposable diaphragm that once in use it will contain a sizeable amount of BufferGel. The BufferGel will be pre-filled. It is known as a duet since it will be responsible for receiving the microbicide on both the vagina and the cervix. These diaphragms will be different from the current diaphragms in that they would only be available in one size. The other current development of the diaphragm is the SILCS diaphragm, which is made from a silicone barrier. This diaphragm is still undergoing some clinical testing to verify its usability. This diaphragm is made of a finger cup like molded fitted on one side of its end. This structure has been made to ease the process of removal. Another streaking feature of this SILCS diaphragm is from its existence in only one size. This will save the users the trouble of making trips to the doctor for fitting among other stressful problem (Satish 51).
Another latest development that is coming up includes the vaginal rings. These rings are polymeric drug conveying tool. This instrument is made such that controls the way the drugs are administered in the vagina. This ring is then inserted in the vagina and is responsible for the provision of contraception protection. This ring is then left insert in the vagina for the duration of three weeks during this time the ring slowly releases vital hormones in the woman’s body. These hormones are mainly made estrogen and progestogens. These hormones are mainly responsible for curbing ovulation and even go further in thickening the mucus membrane in the cervix.
The thickening of the mucosal membrane helps in creating a barrier that would limit the movement of sperms from fertilizing the ova. The inserted ring contains a number of rings where each ring is responsible for controlling birth for the duration of one month. These rings contain a number of vaginal products. Some of these rings contain components such as estring, which is a low-dose. It is made from elastomers of silicone, which is responsible for treating the vaginal atrophy. There are also some components of femring, which is a low dosage of estadiol-acetate.
In case one intends to use the vagina rings it is crucial to understand that these rings are easily inserted as well as removed. The walls of the vagina then hold the rings. The location of the ring does not really matter since it would since function normally. The most recommended location of the vagina rings is when they are placed next to the cervix. Once the woman is engaging in sexual intercourse, these rings are never removed since there is no interference with intercourse. Most partners who use this method as their method of birth control report that none of the partners feels the existence of the ring. In the rare circumstances where the partner may feel uncomfortable of the rings they can easily be removed.
Other than the common barrier methods of controlling birth, males can undergo the technique of vasectomy. Vasectomy involves the small surgical technique, which includes the severing of vasa deferentia. It is then tied in such a way that it limits the movement of sperms from gaining access of the ejaculation. It was evident that the effectiveness of employing ultrasound has an effect on the quality of sperm. The quality of sperm is affected by the ultrasound in that it kills the sperm (Satish 28).
EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS BIRTH CONTROL METHODS
In testing the effectiveness of various techniques of controlling birth, research is taken through the identification on the number of women who besides using numerous birth control methods they still went ahead and gave birth. This effectiveness is seen when a given birth control technique fails in a number of cases. The most efficient techniques are those that have no dependence on action of regular usage. The intrauterine devices, surgical techniques, and implants, these techniques have been reported to have one-year rate of failure. It has been reported that the mentioned techniques have a rate of failure of less than one percent (Back 88; Bullough 4).
Most of the birth control methods can be remarkably effective once they are employed in the right manner and consistently. The other contraceptives, which include the hormonal pills, fertility awareness techniques, the usage of rings, and the lactational technique, have also a high change of effectiveness in being used in the right manner. The existing undisputable techniques of controlling birth are through abstinence; this is the surest way since there is neither penetration nor ejaculation (Ram and Seshachalam 37).
In conclusion, the birth control method should never be seen as a method for controlling sexually transmitted diseases. This is seen from the fact that even though one is under birth control method there is still the exchange of fluids from the vagina and the penis. This method of birth control differs from implants to barrier methods. There are numerous advantages of planning one’s family. Once a family is planned effectively, it reduces the risk of conception. Once one plans his family one is safe from the unnecessary worries of terminating pregnancy, which could lead to eventual abortion. Direct adoption of family planning techniques could have an effect to the health of the woman. Once one plans his/her family, one ends up getting a family that his needs are well catered. It helps the partners focus more on the upbringing of children, through giving the children quality education and other basic amenities that are essential for the growth of children. Partners should always see to it that they practice safer sex; these are sexual intercourses are properly carried out avoiding any chance of unwanted pregnancy and other sexually transmitted disease. Safer sex means that there is no act of exchanging any bodily fluid. Safer sex could also mean that there is no penetration.