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Communism is also referred to as Marxism or revolutionary proletarian socialism and it is both an economic and political philosophy. The main objective of communism is to eradicate state structured country and social class with regard to the labor wages. However, communism once it is practiced does not end with either the political or economical reform. This is because it emphasizes on the abolition of political structures and economic classes rather than their restructure. The developers of communism thought that it would have more benefits if public were allowed free access to consumption articles which in real sense has negative impact to the economic development. Initially, the main objective of communism was to focus on the negative effects of social classes and cause public to riot for their abolition.
However, communism further demands that religions be abolished together with social classes and absolute morality be founded instead as the common religion in the society. This appears ironical because it attempts to encourage civility in the society but removes the religion which is the cornerstone of civility in the expense of absolute morality. Moreover, after the adoption of communism, the governing systems oppress the people they are designed to serve as it is the fact with the communist nations in the world today (Lansford,p.87).
In addition, communism is also thought to have been influenced heavily by czarism which is totalitarian regime that was replaced by communism after the revolution of Russia in 1917. Consequently, adoption of communism results to increased suffering rather than benefits to the society. This has been the practical results in the countries which are under the communist rule. Therefore, communism has only served as a tool to remove morality from the society bringing in evil deeds such as atrocities and abuse of human rights by the governing authorities.
In referring to the novel; History by Elsa Morante, communism is seen to have dominated in the society from which the story was written. Communism is the mother of the abuse of human rights by the individuals who are in power. The story is based on a society living in Italy du ring the Second World War thus the story runs from 1941 to 1947. The author tells the psychological and physical effects of the war in the human life which is evident from the experiences of the main character Ida Mancuso who is a schoolteacher in Italy and of half-Jewish race.
The schoolteacher, Ida Mancuso is a widowed woman and in 1941, a drunken German soldier who is on the way to North Africa caught up with her humble apartment and raped her. This is evident of the abuse of human rights which takes place in the communist countries where culprits go freely. The lady did not report the matter to the authority but instead she fell in love with the soldier who after leaving Italy for North Africa his convoy was attacked, bombed and died in the incident. However, he left Ida pregnant who gave birth to a son whom she named Useppe and she lovely brought him up.
However, Ida Mancuso represents the experiences of women in the communist nations where there is no stable government to rely on when in need of justice or religion to put up the moral stands in the society, however, the best option is to comply with the offensive rulers rather than to defy their will and risk the end of life. In addition, her son, Assepe, also grew to enjoy the experiences of war by taking battleground as the playground. Therefore the character of young Assepe demonstrates the generation which is a produce of offensive generation which lives in a chaotic world (Morante,p.21).
In addition, with accordance to the novel Bread and Wine by Ignazio Silone, the society is suffering because of communism. However, the novel is based on Italy where there is communist resistance by the intellectual class. It is in 1935 and the main character in the novel is an intelligent young man, Pietro Spina who is hunted by the police so he disguises himself as an old priest and bravely carries on his duty in the whole story.
In the beginning, Spina appears to be a hard-line doctrinaire communist. However, an argument between him and the party boss develops when he is pushed so as to sign some documents that he is fully supporting some party issues in Russia. In viewing this point, Spina is pushed so as to sign political doctrines which are Russian and bearing in mind tat they are in Italy, this is evident that the doctrines were in support of communism from Russia to Italy. More also, he does not have freedom of servitude whereby he cannot chose not to sign and remain in the political party. This implies that communism uses forceful powers to get things done.
However, Spina is a strong character who is courageous to raise his opinions knowing the consequences that they bear to his life. In support of this point, he says that dictatorship is a muscular strength of a leader rather not a spiritual. He also says that freedom is not physical and that one can be able to live under a doctorial power but be free. More also, he represents the courageous persons who challenges communism in the present world and the opposition they experience as a result of their decisions.
However, the novel is historical which implies that the story is a fact. With accordance to the historical facts, 1935 is the year during which communist nations lost Italy to the dictatorial leadership of Fascists. Additionally, the main character's message of struggle and self-responsibility is the key tool to fighting away communism in a nation apart from engaging into physical battles. More also, the title of the novel is imagery "bread and wine" which represents unity required to win the battle in which deaths and injuries shall have to be experienced by those engaging into the battle (Silone,p.34).
However, with reference to the novel; The Sky Is Red by Giuseppe Berto, communist is seen top be the root of the problems that society is going through. Communism is the reason to why the novel is a reflection of suffering society from the consequences of defeat and dictatorship. The author has written about the consequences through the lives of the four main characters who are teenagers.
The novel is telling on the harsh experiences of the teenagers who live in a small village in n Italy after the village suffered a bombing during the World War II. With no one to depend on, the young teens who are two males and two females have no otherwise rather than to fight for their survival. They are found to combine their efforts in the search for food, clothing and shelter while engaging into unlawful and immoral deeds so as to meet their needs. This reflects the consequences of communism to the society affected.
In addition, the bombing of the village resulted to the death of the grandmother to Carla and Giulia who were in t heir mid-teen ages. The young teens were left lonely, desperate and hungry. This reflects to traumatizing consequences of communism and political battles to the society whereby children are left with no one to take care of them and they end up becoming security threats to the society as they search for anything which could meet their needs. The two teens turned to Tullio, Clara's boyfriend for help. He is leader of a gang of teenagers who prey on the village ruins and prepare arms for the oncoming communist (Ricciardelli,p.65).
In addition, Tullio instills them into an abandoned brothel where they live on whatever he steals from people and also made Clara top be a prostitute so that they meet their needs. Later on Daniele, a boy whose parents perished in the bombing joins them in the ruins. The four teenagers work together for basic needs by using immoral means such as robbery which was for boys and prostitution which girls did. This is an indication that communism eradicates morality in the society and replaces it with immorality. The author also tells of an old man who slept with Clara for money. In real sense, it is immoral for an old man to sleep with a teenage girl in a just society.
However, the novel has communism as a cause of immorality and injustice in the society. In support of this point, it is injustice to bomb down a village which is people's habitant in a democratic nation. More also, abuse of human rights is practiced in communist nations and this is evident in the novel whereby the village is bombed and young adults lose their adults and relatives who they depend on for the survival. Also, the young adults are seen preparing for the battle in an oncoming communism which exhibits social injustice of engaging young adults into the war.
In conclusion, communism is the key facto to the abuse of human rights which is contrast to the reasons to why it is adopted in a nation. Communism bring s poverty in the society which is as a result of demolition of social classes which makes many people to lose their jobs and rely on crimes in meeting their needs. The young adults suffer more from the consequences of the communism as compared to the adults. This is because many adults lose their lives in case of conflicts rendering the children to be left with no one to rely on for their survival.