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The three-factor model is a strategic approach that can be used to serve people with different cultural backgrounds. In other words, the model aims at ensuring that the disparities brought about by cultural differences are overcome for an effective counseling. In this regard, the model relies on three fundamental considerations that counselors ought to make. This model considers the development status of a consumer and the position in terms of cultural identification. Thirdly, it considers how a certain consumer understands the best adjustments to the impairment (Lewis, 2006). The model works by following a systematic procedure that relies on four things. A counselor is expected to come up with starting materials first. They include perceptions, knowledge, and experience among others. These starting materials aid in preparing for other key activities in the process of counseling people with different cultural backgrounds. This is then subsequently supported by mains activities, setting of goals, and finally, by designing the supporting mechanisms. These steps are mainly designed for coming up with the best approaches towards people who are in need of counseling and are of different cultural backgrounds.
Different counselors at individual levels can also develop the three-factor model. According to the author, this approach gives room for the individualization as stipulated in philosophy and the law governing counseling in multicultural settings (Lewis, 2006). This ensures that the three critical factors of the three-factor model are observed. In this case, a counselor is expected to decide on the manner in which he or she will apply the model individually. In addition, the counselor considers and analyzes the three factors individually and determines theoretical applications that are suitable for various situations. This can be done by identifying and specifying the population of interest. This is then followed by separate consideration of the three factors. First is to consider the diversity which is provided in a whole person perspective. Secondly, the disability adjustment is considered in order to establish where the customer is in terms of cultural differences. Therefore, the adjustments that ought to be implemented, such as the acceptance and awareness, can be established. This is possible by asking targeted individuals whether they are aware of any medical, psychological, or any other aspect of their impairments (Lewis, 2006). In addition, patient can be asked to estimate the limitation brought by the impairment. This helps in assessing the acceptance. This is done because culture manifests itself in different ways, including emotions and mental, physical, spiritual, or social, among others, manner. Therefore, exploring such possibilities can be helpful in facilitating the adjustment to disability after assessing the awareness, acceptance, and adjustments. Finally, it is possible to make accurate conclusions about whether a consumer is taking responsibility for change. This leads to an eventual construction of a sketch model that a counselor can use.
Despite the fact that the three-factor model has been proven effective, it has several weaknesses. First, the model is gullible to independent manipulation since individual approaches are acceptable. According to Lewis (2006, p. 153), this provides an accommodation to the individualization of philosophies and legislation sued in rehabilitation. However, this assertion fails to acknowledge that an individual may utilize this opportunity inappropriately, thus, it becomes ineffective. The second weakness of this model is that a counselor is culturally effective and can acknowledge his or her tendencies the same way he or she understands the cultures of others. In other words, a counselor cannot offer the correct assistance if he or she cannot understand personal and cultural differences.
Finally, the model assumes that cultural diversity exists simply because of the cultural differences. It is incorrect to assume that cultural diversity is because of a multiple factors that interact to form diverse cultures. These factors include ethnicity, levels of education, and race among others. In other words, counselors should treat identity and cultural diversity as a cluster of interactive factors rather than see it as a strict framework of cultures.