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Alli, Benjamin. Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety. Geneva: International Labor Organization, 2001.
This book serves as a reference and guide for the establishment of occupational health and safety programs and policies. The author states that,
Workers have a duty to take care of their own safety, as well as the safety of anyone who might be affected by what they do or fail to do (19).
The above acts as one of the fundamental principles required in occupational health and safety procedures based on the philosophy of ILO in protecting and preventing harmful activities. This originates from the mandate of the organization in the area of occupational health and safety. Again, Alli reiterates that
A consistent policy at the national level is particularly necessary in the prevention and control of occupational hazards, where satisfactory and lasting results can only be achieved through sustained and painstaking efforts (28).
This is gotten from the guidelines that are embodied in the standards of ILO, conference solutions and codes of practice. According to Alli,
A healthy, motivated and contended workforce is fundamental to future social and economic well-being of any nation (99).
This is basically the ultimate goal of the principles of protection and prevention reflected in the instruments applied in occupational health and safety laws, programs, policies and regulations.
It is a good source as it delineates an occupational health and safety approach that can be utilized as a foundation for programs and policies to establish a safe and a healthy working environment for everybody. Alli presents generally accepted measures and activities of OSHA that other sources have highlighted.
Gallagher, Clare, Elsa Underhill and Malcolm Rimmer. Occupational health and safety management systems: A review of their effectiveness in securing healthy and safe workplaces. Sydney: NOHSC, 2001.
The authors emphasize the need of ensuring a strong management system of the occupational healthy and safety procedures. Gallagher and her colleagues present a very important aspect of the accountability of management in ensuring continuous check and evaluation processes. In their work, the authors say that
There is evidence to suggest that management accountability for OHS is often weak; Dawson et al. (1988:164) found that health and safety performance rarely featured in formal and informal management appraisals (28).
Moreover, the authors state that establishing and maintaining a good occupational health and safety policy or program cannot be left in the hands of the management team alone. Employees must be included in the programs and in the process of ensuring sustainable occupational healthy and safety procedures, though under close supervision of the management team. They assert that
There may also be direct employee involvement programs, for example safety inspections and quality circles, which are also likely to be management-driven (31).
The authors emphasize the major challenges of occupational healthy and safety administration and come up with proposals that would result into an effective process. Gallagher et al. states that
given the problms associated with current measurement tools, one suggestion which will assist on-going research upon OHSMS effectiveness is the establishment of measurement protocols prior to the evaluation of organization OHSMS (71).
Gallagher and her colleagues provide very useful information tackling on the effectiveness of OSHA. This source stands out in the way it analyses OSHA activities to determine the effectiveness of the measures taken to ensure good healthy and safety conditions. Unlike other sources, the authors give the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of the matter in question.
Krause, Thomas R. Safety Incentives from a Behavioral Perspective: Presenting a Balance Sheet. Professional Safety, 1998
Krause discusses four main factors that are used to evaluate models of safety incentives. These are pointed out as feedback, injury reporting, safety message, and pride of performance. Krause says,
…as a result, incentives often become an entitlement for the workforce and a "sacred cow" for managers (24).
This means that conventional incentives programs founded on rates, programs of behavior modification that multiply participation in activities of safety, and safety based on behavior using feedback and observations become very important for managers in promoting occupational health and safety. About the above mentioned models of safety incentives, Krause states that
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compelling reasons prompt a revisit to the pros and cons associated with safety incentive programs” and ”generally, behavior-based safety incentives have stood out in excellence (26).
It is very appealing to make use of behavior-based safety incentives as they are closely connected to employees, hence producing outstanding results, when compared to the other criteria of evaluating occupational health and safety procedures. According to Krause,
…although the outcome of the two types of incentive programs may be the same, only the former type (non-traditional) truly enhances worker safety and health… (28).
This clearly shows that the safety and health of the worker can be enhanced by non-cash incentives. A sense of purpose will yield better results in ensuring occupational health and safety. Krause is an author of behavior-based safety. He presents a balanced score card in matters of health and safety administration that is aimed at providing outstanding results. This work hangs onto professionalism while applying occupational, safety and health measures in the work place. It covers a wide scope that is really useful.
Machida, Seiji. Programme of action for occupational safety and health in Thailand towards the 21st century: An advisory report. Bangkok: International Labour Organization, East Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (ILO/EASMAT), 2000.
The fast growth and diversification of economic and industrial activities in Thailand in the recent past has assisted the Kingdom in significant development and prosperity. At the same time, the growth has caused the emergence of challenges in the Kingdom, among which is the issue of occupational health and safety administration. Machida says, that
Occupational health and safety issues grow and diversify at the same speed as the economy” and “new processes, new industries and new developments may all bring new hazards (34)..
Besides, Machida describes to what extent the effect of economic and industrial growth is felt. The challenge is enormous as it affects both the economy and human existence. As the author states,
The cost of every single occupational accident or disease, measured in terms of both human suffering and economic loss, is huge” and “considered nationally, the costs are enormous (41).
This report also emphasizes the measures as well as the stakeholders supposed to counteract these challenges. The social partners and the government are very important players in ensuring that occupational health and safety is achieved. Machida says that
Guarding against those hazards requires the active involvement of all three of the ILO’s tripartite constituents, government, employers and workers (47).
Machida presents very essential primary research on the programs of action in matters of occupational health and safety. The authenticity of this report can be verified and used as a very important source in determining the future of OSHA. Unlike other sources that rely on secondary information, it is most certain that the author offers credible data and information that can be effectively used to address issues affecting effective OSHA.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration: Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines; Issuance of Voluntary Guidelines; Notice. Federal Register Vol. 54, No. 16, Jan. 26, 1989: 3904-3916.
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This is mainly a publication of the voluntary guidelines by the federal government that delineates OSHA and what it represents in matters of framework and content for health and safety program excellence. These guidelines state categorically about a management system in order to specify and control any hazards with a proactive approach, utilizing four main elements of the program: worksite analysis, hazard control and prevention, health and safety training and employee involvement along with management leadership. For instance, it is stated that
Safety and health systems may be written or oral” and since ”the size of a worksite or the complexity of a hazardous operation increases, the need for written guidance increases in order to ensure consistent and fair application of rules and clear communication of policies and priorities”, because the practical effectiveness of the system is what ultimately significant (3902).
Writing these guidelines in conspicuous places would help to instill the information in employees and therefore enhance application efficiency of the occupational health and safety procedures. The author emphasizes that
Planning and preparing for emergencies and conducting emergency training and drills” plays an important role (3908).
In addition, it is important to
Ensure periodic refresher training for all employees (3913).
If training is being done repeatedly, it reminds employees about the occupational health and safety requirements and makes it almost impossible to forget them. This is an important source because it provides guidelines that are based on the experience of OSHA in assessing worksites through a state run project of consultation and Voluntary Protection Program. It draws its research from a diverse approach to come up with the most appropriate OSHA activities.
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