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1. During the Gothic period an interest in Mary changed from her simply being the the Mother of God to her also being Queen of Heaven and a complex symbol of feminine virtue. Discuss works of art in northern Europe during the Early Renaissance period that portrays Mary and the related symbolism and the implications of her portrayal.

Michelangelos Pieta is was commissioned for the tomb of St. Peters by a French cardinal who was a representative of Rome. The sculpture depicts the Virgin Mary holding a dead Christ. It follows a theme of lamentation of Christ which prevailed in Northern Europe at the time. Mary in this sculpture was used to symbolize holiness and youth. The sculpture also depicts Mary as a mother mourning her dead son and her outstretched left hand seems to call upon those who see the sculpture to share her sorrow with her.

The sculpture of the Virgin of Paris in Notre dame depict Mary and Christ the infant who are donned in elegant clothes. By depicting Mary in elegant clothes and a heavily bejeweled crown the sculpture depicts her as queen of the world.

 2. Artists of the Northern Renaissance are sometimes described as being concerned with the Realism of Particulars, showing tremendous interest in minute details, but not so much concern with overall exactitude, especially in terms of the rendition of space. Discuss works from Northern Renaissance that demonstrate these ideas. (Chapter 12)  

Donatello used shallow relief to depict depth when actually the pane he was using is very shallow. In Massacios Holy Trinity he utilizes depth by the use of orthogonal diagonal lines. He also depicts God as a human being which was different fron the style use by the reinesssance artist of the time. He humanizes God by depicting him as a human being instead of an abstract form as was common during this period such as the use of a hand or an eye. The expulsion from paradise by Masaccio is another of his works where he has captured the emotions of human beings. In the sculpture he depicts Adam and Eve whom from their expressions show shame regret.

3. Discuss the paintings of the early Italian Renaissance in terms of use of light, treatment of space, and realism. (Chapter 12)

Chiaroscuro is the use of light to create an illusion of depth. In Leornado davinci’s painting The annunciation does not capture the background by mistake but rather uses it to create a sense of realism. He uses light  to contrast the human faces from those of the surroundings. Light values have also been used to create contrasts in Mary’s robes as well as to bring out the details of the architecture. By keenly following the lines that create the stone wall behind Mary in the painting, Davinci uses perspective to create space by leading use to the landscape in the background of the building. By creating larger objects in the foreground and smaller objectives in the background an illusion of distance is created. In Ginevra de benci, Davinci uses light to contrast the skin of Ginevra and the tree in the background. Again in this painting Davinci uses the element of space by use of perspective; however, he uses space in a different stle by having the painting occupy almost the entire picture. Space has also been utilized by painting the picture in open air instead of indoors.

Lady with an Ermie, is another example of a painting that uses light to create space. In the painting the use of a dark background, create an element os space while the colour contrast bring out the light values.

4. Discuss the advent of printmaking in Europe. Discuss the ways in which this new art form offered different means of expression and publication from painting. (Chapter 12) it was invented in china in its crude forms of woodcuts and stone rubbings. The first from of print art in Europe was used to make playing cards for entertainment. It was also used among the clergy to create images for devotional purposes. It was of great influence in the development of impressionist work.       

5. Discuss the various decorations for the Vatican presented in your text in terms of their meaning in relationship to Rome and the Papacy.

The Vatican started as a residence for the catholic popes near the basillica. The then pope secured gardens which toady contain orchards and wineries. The Sistine chapel was decorated by Michelangelo;it is used for papal elections. It is the most famous of all chapel. The Vatican is a place of residence as well as an art museum. It also is home to the Vatican Pinacotheca which is where the ancient manuscripts are stored.

6. In the Pesaro Madonna, Titian incorporates tradition and innovation, both in subject matter and in presentation. Discuss this fully, considering the specific ways in which he diverges from the past. (Chapter 13)

Titian incorporates a lot of color in this painting  which shows the light value. Color has also been used to represent the different people by showing the different people in the picture. The painting diverges from the conventional ways of portraying Mary. In this picture she is presented Kneeling before the priests.

7. Compare the Deposition by Pontormo to the Deposition by van der Weyden, discussing format, space, emotional content, and color. (Chapters 12, 13)

In the deposition by Pontormo, the figures are long asymmetrical forms that appear to look the same. The Man in the centre is the focus of attention of the painting. The space in this painting has been fully utilized and the painting does not leave much space unutilized. In that by van der weyden the figures are symmetrical and there is a lot of space unutilized in the portrait. There is more colour used in the painting by Van der weyden than in Pontormo who uses on dark shade.

8. Discuss the effects of the Protestant Reformation on artists and their works in Germany. (Chapter 13)

The reformation of the church changed the way people relate to biblical teachings. It led to the burning of  all forms of human representations that were displayed in the churches.

9. Compare the David by Donatello to that of Michelangelo and that of Bernini. (Chapters 12,13,14)

The sculpture by  Donatello is made of bronze while that of Michelangelo and Bernini are made out of marble.

The sculpture of David by the three artist depict david differently based on age, emotion and size. Donatello’s David shows David in his younger years where he appears relaxed. In contrast, Michelangelo’s David depicts a grown up David in his nude form. In addition, the expression on this david is that of someone who is anticipating battle while that of Bernini depict a David in the battle field ready to strike Goliath. Michelangelo’s sculpture is bigger in actual size that the other two so as to offer the viewers better details of the sculpture. Michelangelo’s David and Bernini have very little weaponry while that of Donatello depicts more weaponry besides the slingshot.

10. Discuss the effects of Mannerism on the evolution of Baroque art. (Chapters 13, 14)

            The baroque period was a period where art reflected an immense extent of extravagance and wealth due to increased trade. The baroque period was also a period of upheaval due to the divisions of the church. Light also become a prominent feature, as a result of acceptance of the theory that the sun is the centre of the universe and not the earth as the Catholic church had tried to depict. Mannerism is the inclusion of grace and elegance in art and other form of human behavior such as depicted in The portrait of the artists sisters playing chess. Mannerism is depicted in the painting by the artist attention to detail where she shows the elegance of her sisters by the placement of their fingers. Balance is created by depicting the jolly younger sister beside the concerned looking maid on opposite sides of the portrait. Mannerism had a great influence on baroque because it was the beginning on incorporating human emotions in art which was common in Baroque art.

 

11. Discuss the purposes or goals of Baroque style as it appears in various countries and the variations which appear. (Chapter 14)

            The purpose of baroque art was to incorporate the activities that were taking place then such as the reformation of the church into art. Its main purpose was to explore new forms of art that gave the viewer a a peak into the turmoil that was on going at the time.

12. Discuss how Rococo art is similar to Baroque art and how it is different. (Chapter 14)

            Both forms of art reflect the events that were going at the time however, Baroque was more religion oriented than Rococco. Violence was also a common feature I both forms of art. Baroque art was characterized by optics and perspectives such as the way Carracci and Caravaggio depicted it in their art. Baroque art was as a result of renaissance art while Rococco art was as a response to Baroque. The spiral-looking and asymmetrical shapes that characterizes baroque art was replaced with angular symmetrical shapes. Rococco art was majorly a part of Frances history while Baroque art was found in Italy. Rococco art was also more optimistic and satirical than Baroque. This is reflected in Hogarth’s series of paintings.

13. Describe the physical layout and the associated symbolism of the city of Tenochtitlan, including architecture and architectural decoration. (Chapter 15)

            The city was renovated so as to take in the growing population. It was divided into five major parts including the central one. The canals were organized such that from the central quadrant the other four canals formed the cardinal points of the compass. The central quadrant was the centre of administration. In order to create architectural decoration, the city was renovated along the gridlines. There were also geometric lines and sweep lines to add to the décor. The architectural layout was characterized by gardens, courts and the great temple of Tenochtitlan. The city four other cities were representations of the divine patrons, colors and signs.

14. Compare the earthworks created in North and South American pre-columbian cultures in terms of form, purposes, and methods of construction. (Chapter 15)

The earth works of those in the higher regions in the pre-colombian society were seen to be more complex than those of their counterparts in the lower regions. They were characterized by the geometric forms that were found in strategic areas for defense and religious purposes.

Works cited

1. During the Gothic period an interest in Mary changed from her simply being the the Mother of God to her also being Queen of Heaven and a complex symbol of feminine virtue. Discuss works of art in northern Europe during the Early Renaissance period that portrays Mary and the related symbolism and the implications of her portrayal.

            Michelangelos Pieta is was commissioned for the tomb of St. Peters by a French cardinal who was a representative of Rome. The sculpture depicts the Virgin Mary holding a dead Christ. It follows a theme of lamentation of Christ which prevailed in Northern Europe at the time. Mary in this sculpture was used to symbolize holiness and youth. The sculpture also depicts Mary as a mother mourning her dead son and her outstretched left hand seems to call upon those who see the sculpture to share her sorrow with her.

            The sculpture of the Virgin of Paris in Notre dame depict Mary and Christ the infant who are donned in elegant clothes. By depicting Mary in elegant clothes and a heavily bejeweled crown the sculpture depicts her as queen of the world.

 2. Artists of the Northern Renaissance are sometimes described as being concerned with the Realism of Particulars, showing tremendous interest in minute details, but not so much concern with overall exactitude, especially in terms of the rendition of space. Discuss works from Northern Renaissance that demonstrate these ideas. (Chapter 12) 

Donatello used shallow relief to depict depth when actually the pane he was using is very shallow. In Massacios Holy Trinity he utilizes depth by the use of orthogonal diagonal lines. He also depicts God as a human being which was different fron the style use by the reinesssance artist of the time. He humanizes God by depicting him as a human being instead of an abstract form as was common during this period such as the use of a hand or an eye. The expulsion from paradise by Masaccio is another of his works where he has captured the emotions of human beings. In the sculpture he depicts Adam and Eve whom from their expressions show shame regret.

3. Discuss the paintings of the early Italian Renaissance in terms of use of light, treatment of space, and realism. (Chapter 12)

Chiaroscuro is the use of light to create an illusion of depth. In Leornado davinci’s painting The annunciation does not capture the background by mistake but rather uses it to create a sense of realism. He uses light  to contrast the human faces from those of the surroundings. Light values have also been used to create contrasts in Mary’s robes as well as to bring out the details of the architecture. By keenly following the lines that create the stone wall behind Mary in the painting, Davinci uses perspective to create space by leading use to the landscape in the background of the building. By creating larger objects in the foreground and smaller objectives in the background an illusion of distance is created. In Ginevra de benci, Davinci uses light to contrast the skin of Ginevra and the tree in the background. Again in this painting Davinci uses the element of space by use of perspective; however, he uses space in a different stle by having the painting occupy almost the entire picture. Space has also been utilized by painting the picture in open air instead of indoors.

Lady with an Ermie, is another example of a painting that uses light to create space. In the painting the use of a dark background, create an element os space while the colour contrast bring out the light values.

4. Discuss the advent of printmaking in Europe. Discuss the ways in which this new art form offered different means of expression and publication from painting. (Chapter 12) it was invented in china in its crude forms of woodcuts and stone rubbings. The first from of print art in Europe was used to make playing cards for entertainment. It was also used among the clergy to create images for devotional purposes. It was of great influence in the development of impressionist work.

5. Discuss the various decorations for the Vatican presented in your text in terms of their meaning in relationship to Rome and the Papacy.

The Vatican started as a residence for the catholic popes near the basillica. The then pope secured gardens which toady contain orchards and wineries. The Sistine chapel was decorated by Michelangelo;it is used for papal elections. It is the most famous of all chapel. The Vatican is a place of residence as well as an art museum. It also is home to the Vatican Pinacotheca which is where the ancient manuscripts are stored.

6. In the Pesaro Madonna, Titian incorporates tradition and innovation, both in subject matter and in presentation. Discuss this fully, considering the specific ways in which he diverges from the past. (Chapter 13)

Titian incorporates a lot of color in this painting  which shows the light value. Color has also been used to represent the different people by showing the different people in the picture. The painting diverges from the conventional ways of portraying Mary. In this picture she is presented Kneeling before the priests.

7. Compare the Deposition by Pontormo to the Deposition by van der Weyden, discussing format, space, emotional content, and color. (Chapters 12, 13)

In the deposition by Pontormo, the figures are long asymmetrical forms that appear to look the same. The Man in the centre is the focus of attention of the painting. The space in this painting has been fully utilized and the painting does not leave much space unutilized. In that by van der weyden the figures are symmetrical and there is a lot of space unutilized in the portrait. There is more colour used in the painting by Van der weyden than in Pontormo who uses on dark shade.

8. Discuss the effects of the Protestant Reformation on artists and their works in Germany. (Chapter 13)

The reformation of the church changed the way people relate to biblical teachings. It led to the burning of  all forms of human representations that were displayed in the churches.

9. Compare the David by Donatello to that of Michelangelo and that of Bernini. (Chapters 12,13,14)

The sculpture by  Donatello is made of bronze while that of Michelangelo and Bernini are made out of marble.

The sculpture of David by the three artist depict david differently based on age, emotion and size. Donatello’s David shows David in his younger years where he appears relaxed. In contrast, Michelangelo’s David depicts a grown up David in his nude form. In addition, the expression on this david is that of someone who is anticipating battle while that of Bernini depict a David in the battle field ready to strike Goliath. Michelangelo’s sculpture is bigger in actual size that the other two so as to offer the viewers better details of the sculpture. Michelangelo’s David and Bernini have very little weaponry while that of Donatello depicts more weaponry besides the slingshot.

10. Discuss the effects of Mannerism on the evolution of Baroque art. (Chapters 13, 14)

The baroque period was a period where art reflected an immense extent of extravagance and wealth due to increased trade. The baroque period was also a period of upheaval due to the divisions of the church. Light also become a prominent feature, as a result of acceptance of the theory that the sun is the centre of the universe and not the earth as the Catholic church had tried to depict. Mannerism is the inclusion of grace and elegance in art and other form of human behavior such as depicted in The portrait of the artists sisters playing chess. Mannerism is depicted in the painting by the artist attention to detail where she shows the elegance of her sisters by the placement of their fingers. Balance is created by depicting the jolly younger sister beside the concerned looking maid on opposite sides of the portrait. Mannerism had a great influence on baroque because it was the beginning on incorporating human emotions in art which was common in Baroque art.

11. Discuss the purposes or goals of Baroque style as it appears in various countries and the variations which appear. (Chapter 14)

The purpose of baroque art was to incorporate the activities that were taking place then such as the reformation of the church into art. Its main purpose was to explore new forms of art that gave the viewer a a peak into the turmoil that was on going at the time.

12. Discuss how Rococo art is similar to Baroque art and how it is different. (Chapter 14)

Both forms of art reflect the events that were going at the time however, Baroque was more religion oriented than Rococco. Violence was also a common feature I both forms of art. Baroque art was characterized by optics and perspectives such as the way Carracci and Caravaggio depicted it in their art. Baroque art was as a result of renaissance art while Rococco art was as a response to Baroque. The spiral-looking and asymmetrical shapes that characterizes baroque art was replaced with angular symmetrical shapes. Rococco art was majorly a part of Frances history while Baroque art was found in Italy. Rococco art was also more optimistic and satirical than Baroque. This is reflected in Hogarth’s series of paintings.

13. Describe the physical layout and the associated symbolism of the city of Tenochtitlan, including architecture and architectural decoration. (Chapter 15)

The city was renovated so as to take in the growing population. It was divided into five major parts including the central one. The canals were organized such that from the central quadrant the other four canals formed the cardinal points of the compass. The central quadrant was the centre of administration. In order to create architectural decoration, the city was renovated along the gridlines. There were also geometric lines and sweep lines to add to the décor. The architectural layout was characterized by gardens, courts and the great temple of Tenochtitlan. The city four other cities were representations of the divine patrons, colors and signs.

14. Compare the earthworks created in North and South American pre-columbian cultures in terms of form, purposes, and methods of construction. (Chapter 15)

The earth works of those in the higher regions in the pre-colombian society were seen to be more complex than those of their counterparts in the lower regions. They were characterized by the geometric forms that were found in strategic areas for defense and religious purposes.

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