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lobbying and advocacy on issues affecting women among the services that are used by pregnant women from the listed above include:-pap smear, breast check, pregnancy advice, court support for women experiencing domestic violence, support services for aboriginal and non English speaking women, individual counseling and support groups, health education and information sessions, naturopathic consultants, acupuncture consultants, legal advice by a solicitor from women’s legal services and lobbying and advocacy on issues affecting women. These services are relevant to a pregnant woman.
To begin with the effects of a proper health care system is as follows:
The perceptions of woman on the influence of race and racism and quality of healthcare, their personal experience with being treated fairly in the health care center and their perceptions of racial and ethnic bias in the health care center and their attitudes to these health services.
Most of the evidence demonstrating that does not advantage certain group in medical treatment comes from studies that contrast the services and procedures provided to aborigines and whites. For example, studies of the racial disparity in treatment of heart disease and stroke generally report that whites are more likely to undergo invasive medical procedures.
the Liverpool women’s has been under constant reforms to ensure that qualiy of medical care is maintained for all the patients but there is need to do more to upgrade these systems. There is laxity in the whole medical system. Though the quality of care is mostly up to standard the patient uses a lot of time before they can see a doctor while getting to see a consultant is almost impossible due to the long waiting lists. These long waiting lists result to inefficiencies in the whole health system and many patients die while still waiting to see the doctor.
This refers to the treatment that a patient receives within the health system. It refers to the quality of healthcare that is given to the different races or ethnic classes in the same health system for the same disease. for example in the treatment of cancer the national cancer association discovered that though radiotherapy was essential in treating cancer, women of the African American descent were less likely to receive it when compared to their white counterparts. In addition black Americans were also less likely to be referred to a doctor for the same ailments that the white populations were being referred for. This is due to varying degrees of cultural competency within the system whereby people are treated differently due to their race. Also the health literacy varies among the different communities based on the different practices, levels of education and also the peer or societal influences. The African American population is less likely to indulge in exercise and other preventive healthcare practices though they have the highest rates of heart disease, hypertension as well as obesity.
Individuals in the health system who have prejudices towards certain racess contribute towards some of the racial disparities that occur in the health system. Although this is significant more often institution, government and insurance cause the major health inequities on the basis of ethnicity and race. Individual factors such as the social economic status of the person will determine the sort of the healthcare options that are available. while this is may continue to be true, I argue that there is room is improve and expand these models by better applying larger sociological theories and concepts to healthcare utilization. Using racial disparities in medical treatment as a case for change, I outline some of the problems and possibilities. currently in medical sociology, the most common models for understanding health services utilization are the health belief model (becker 1974) and behavioral model of health services use (andersen 1968; andersen 1995). These models focus on access and utilization of care, asking how people ‘get in the door’ of healthcare facilities. For these particular questions, these models have advanced research and understanding of health-related behaviors. However, as has been seen with the problem of racial and ethnic inconsistency in medical treatment, there are barriers to medical treatment for patients who successfully access the healthcare system. For example, the social organization of race may influence the behavior of healthcare providers in ways that affect medical treatment, but this cannot be predicted by traditional healthcare utilization models. Part of the appeal of the utilization models is their flexibility, but this flexibility can come at the cost of theoretical guidance. The next step is to develop an approach that addresses both how people seek care and the key influences on medical treatment of patients after they are in the system