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In order to understand sociology, one must understand terms such as otherness, oneness, public versus private spheres and puritan Calvinism
Feminist theorists use the terms other and one to describe two different aspects that relate to their field of study. Feminist theorists use the term other to refer to a concept that opposes sameness. The term other differentiates a person from another person. For instance, feminists use men to understand women. The otherness of a woman makes her a lesser being as compared to a man. Feminist theorists use the term one to refer to the self. This is the use of the internal being to determine, identify and understand the self.
George Simmel used the term distance to refer to the determination of certain things in relation to the spatial difference with its actor. For example, when a person becomes close to the actor they are considered familiar. However, they become strangers when they have a wide distance from actors.
Max Weber received credit for starting the sociology of religion. Weber considered religion as the heart of society. Weber stated that religion had effect in almost everything, in the society ranging from social stratification, economic activities and western civilization. Weber took a protestant stand in religion. His ideas of religion got an influence from his childhood years. Weber believed that religion defined motivation and thus contributed to the rise of modern capitalism. For his religion had meaning if it responded to theodicy and soteriology.
The public sphere refers to the public interactions, business, government, community interactions and education. The private sphere refers to an individual and his family relations and interactions.
Calvinism and Puritanism had an influence on sociological theory in terms of religion and social aspects. Calvinism and Puritanism contributed much to protestant views in the sociological theory. The puritan-Calvinistic tradition provided a morally and socially restrictive focus on capitalism. It led to the creation of white, Anglo-Saxon and protestant culture that dominated the society.
Feminist theorists, max Weber, Calvinistic sociologists contributed much to sociological theory.