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Sociologists are more concerned with the study of social behavior relationships among social groups and societies and the maintenance of order. The main focus among social groups and societies and the maintenance of order.
Anthropologist is more concerned with the science of mankind and the study of human behaviour as a whole. As far as The organizational behaviors is concerned the main focus of attention is on the cultural system , the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within a groups or society and the comparison of behavior among different cultures – for example the importance of Muslim women of wearing trousers to work. People learn to depend on their culture to give them security and stability and they can suffer to unfamiliar environments.
The contribution of relevant aspects of psychology, sociology and anthropology aids out understanding of the behavior of people in work organizations and underpins the field of organizational behavior. Behavioral science attempts to structure organizations in order to secure the optimum working environment. Emphasis is on the application of relevant aspects of psychological and sociological theory and the practice and cultural influences to problems of organization and management in the work situation.
Any researcher faces the dilemma of choosing the most suitable approach to meet the aim and objectives of a study. Therefore this section becomes one of the most important sections. A wrong approach may render the objectives and significance of the whole study insignificant. However, there is no one best approach to follow since the choice of process is different to each research as well as the objectives themselves. Besides choosing the most suitable methodology also depends on the availability of resources.
This section seeks to discuss and justifies the methodology used in this research. It starts by describing the research process and its objectives. It moves to discuss what maybe the most relevant approaches, research designs, and data collection methods and data analysis. After this, the most suitable methodology for the current research can be selected. The section ends by concluding the main points raised and sets in place the methodological approach for the study.
The Research Process:-The purpose of conducting research is to find a suitable solution for a specific and immediate problem that is confronted. Research is generally assumed to be a complicated task which is actually not if the various parts or phases of the research are clearly understood. This research project is basically a well-structured process which has a beginning, intermediate part and the end. The problem formulation was the first and the most important step of the research process for this study. The problem was defined clearly and specifically, as an ill-defined problem may result in an ineffective solution. The problem was properly translated into a research topic and the reason why the research was required was also spelt out. Secondly, an exhaustive revision of the theoretical and empirical framework within the related review of literature was made. The literature review was based on secondary research conducted by reviewing various journal articles, books, research evidences of past research and of course the worldwide web. This step helped the study by generating and refining the research objectives. Another step was the research approach and design of the research. This step covers the way in which data were collected to answer the research objectives. This step also influenced the data collection method. The data were collected according to the chosen method. Finally, the data were analyzed, interpreted and presented in this research.
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Exploratory research helps in the identification of the presence of potential opportunities. The data for this kind of research is obtained from books, journals, magazines etc. Descriptive research is generally conducted after the above research. As the problem is clearly defined in exploratory research, the quantum or intensity of the problem is identified in descriptive research. In causal research, the cause and effect relationships between two variables are analyzed. This research followed a descriptive design due to its suitability to answer who, what, when, where and how questions.
Research Design can be simply defined as the structure followed by the researcher. Research Design is the important component or key ingredient which holds all the various elements of the entire research (Trochim, 2006). A design is elaborately explained by using a succinct data which further enables in the summarization of a complex or difficult design structure in an efficient manner. A research design consists of various elements. They are as follows:
Quantitative design is further classified into three types. They are Experimental Design, Quasi-experimental design and Non-experimental Design (Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India; India Center for Management Research, 2004). Experimental design is conducted to establish a cause-effect relationship. This method helps in the evaluation of a particular outcome simultaneously having a control on the other factors which influence the outcome.
Quasi-experimental design is a process in which pre-existing groups are considered to carry out the research. However, while using this kind of research design, it is mandatory that the characteristics of the selected pre-existing group are described in detail (Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India; India Center for Management Research, 2004).
Non-experimental design again is classified into three types namely, correlation, descriptive and casual comparative. Correlation is used for prediction and it aims at establishing a relationship between two sets of variables. Descriptive methods just describe the existing phenomena without any change. Casual comparative method is used to prove the cause-effect relationship.
Qualitative design is a design methodology which provides the researcher with in-depth information which is easy to comprehend. This design method uses subjective information to describe the context of the research (Key). Purpose, Focus, Reality, Values, Orientation and Viewpoint are some of the characteristics of Qualitative Design. In both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods and analysis procedures each has their own strengths and weaknesses according to (smith, 2003: cited by Saunders et al 2007). There a relationship between the data collection methods and the out come result obtain which is affected by the methods and procedures used.
Organizational evolution is normally initiated by the management in order to respond to internal or external changes so as to improve the service delivery of the organization. Change in management requires a thorough planning and responsive implementation, most of all, consultation need to done involving the people who are going to be affected by the planned changes. However, for this to happen, the management must have an attitude of embracing change and will to adapt to new approaches of doing work. In VSLI company it is clear that the management prefer sticking to the old ways of management, as one of them says “if it is working why change it” to them, as long as the company is able to operate and produce, nothing more is required (Glower; Legge and Clegg, 1993) However, from the case study, it is clear that structural changes are required in the areas of communication, organization structure and change of management attitude and leadership style. If this three important aspects are not addressed the organization is bound to face major problems in the near future.