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In the Allegory of the Cave, the Greek philosopher Plato clearly illustrates his profound philosophical conviction that acquisition of knowledge through education is the only way in which human minds can articulately perceive and understand the world around them. Lack of acquired intellectuality results into an apparent misconception of the real world hence analogy of the cave. Just like his teacher Socrates, Plato maintains that the much desired universal truth is deeply embedded in education and that only enlightened individuals can acquire the rare wisdom- a fundamental quality that all rulers must exhibit in the society.
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In the Allegory of the Cave, the light and the sun refer to education and philosophical enlightenment processes whereby human minds are directed towards intellectual apprehension of the real world around them. The two elements are well represented by knowledge, new ideas, and wisdom. The universal truth cannot be attained in the absence of light and sun as depicted in the reading since the two forces enable the human minds to go beyond the limited boundaries of the physical world where they live into the real larger yet invisible universe. On the other hand, a cave symbolizes a limited and poor perception of the world as revealed by our senses rather than mind. Wisdom, truth and reality cannot be attained in the cave as depicted in the reading.
In my opinion, the point of this reading was largely to sensitize the readers on the critical role of education and eventual enlightenment in the pursuit of knowledge, wisdom and ultimate truth through intellectual apprehension. The modern day version of this story manifests in discovery of new ideas, scientific and technological discoveries, development of new political systems, and modern economic theories. In these scenarios, the light represents modern technological methodologies, information technology, and modernized orientations of finding solutions to the existing problems while cave represent adamant conservatives that remain rigid to similar scientific and technological advances in the present world.