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The ancient culture suggested that the place of the woman was in the kitchen. Her role was viewed as raising children, and it was purely domestic. This has changed over the years as women have taken on greater roles in society. Some among these include careers whereby women have taken on similar roles as men. They have enrolled in schools and universities where they have pursued careers that have put them at equal ratings with men. They have taken up managerial level roles in companies. This is an annotated bibliography citing ten articles on the same topic “Women in Management in the 21st Century.”
- Gender equality
The authors argue that the desire for gender equality in many companies has fostered the promotion of women in organizational leadership. This has been seen in some companies while others are still in the process of incorporating women in leadership. In Canada, it gives an organization a competitive advantage to have women in management. Failure to include women in the organizational leadership causes some customers to drift from the organization. For companies to incorporate women, they must incorporate the culture change that has hit the world. This allows the talent pool to expand within the organization. It also allows women to have the tenacity while implementing their managerial roles.
Gerry, P., & Shirley, K., 2011. More Women in Senior Roles: If Only Companies really wanted it. Ivey Business Journal, 75(6), p.34.
- Women lag behind men
Douglas in his article notes that women lag men in every career stage starting from the precise first career jobs. He cites the fact that there are not so many women in leadership because many women follow different career paths. He, however, sights women who have risen to the male dominated world of managers and how the reception has been. To this, he adds that the notion that women are confined to beauty, fashion, and the kitchen has long died. It has been easier for these women to address the press conferences as their company representatives. It has also been easy for them to lead large teams composed of men as they have acquired the tactics to pioneer change.
Douglas, B., 2010. Women in Management: Delusions of Progress. Harvard Business Review, 88(5), p.56.
- Differences in leadership behavior
This article indicates that men with relatively few women mainly occupy top management teams in companies. This is true even in the 21st century when more women have leadership positions in organizations as compared to earlier centuries. The article cites the cause of difference to the differences in leadership behavior among women and men. The societal concepts and the organizational differences also explain the differences. The article also describes the difference in leadership behaviors that are exhibited by women and men. The differences in these behaviors are associated with the socialization processes that exist. The individuals learn to conform to the leadership expectations as dictated by their gender.
Emerick, H., Wendt, H., & Euwema, M., 2010. Gender Ratio, Societal culture and male and female leadership. The British Psychological Society, 83, pp.895-914.
- Women in developing economies
The article indicates that in the developing economies women occupy 50% of the positions in large companies. It also indicates that Indian and Afghan women hold most professional and management positions in large companies. The article, however, cites the fact that some organizations in the region still believe that women are less competitive than men are. It also indicates that women are denied leadership positions because they are considered conservative. The article cites and discusses the hardships and obstacles that hinder women from being hired in the workplace. This include the fact that some bosses are opposed to hiring women as they are opposed to maternity leaves.
Kaifi, B., 2011.Eastern Indian and Afghan Women in Management: A quantitative Inquiry on Their Leadership Proficiencies and Propensities. International Journal of Business Management, 6 (3), pp. 1-10.
- More women in academic institutions
Women in the workforce represent less than 15% of the corporate executives in the large companies. This is deemed to change with time as the women rise higher in the ranks at the work places. The article attributes the expected changes to result from the fact that women are earning unusually many professional degrees. In some instances, the number of women earning these degrees is greater than the number of men who are earning them. The article also discusses programs implemented by many companies to eradicate the biases that existed against women in the workplace. This is geared towards ensuring that there are more places that are open for women in the work places.
Nancy, C., & Christine, S., 2010. Women in Management: Delusions of Progress. Harvard Business Review, 88(3).
- Emotional intelligence
The company website cites the strengths that are shown by the women in management as opposed to men. Some of the strengths that are cited include the fact that women exercise emotional intelligence more easily than men do. This allows women to use this as a source of strength influence and connection. The women get more deals, and things flow more easily in the workplace. They also emphasize on the styles that women use that makes them more effective as compared to men. Women are likely to be more empathetic and understanding as leaders. This motivates the workers to work more effectively due to the support received from the leadership.
Coaching For New Women Managers, 2012. Management training by and for today's career women. [Online] Available at :< http://www.coaching-for-new-women-managers.com/index.html> [Accessed 28 January 2012].
- Role of structural barriers
This website indicates companies are looking for women to join their top management teams in their culture. The company’s desire to hire and promote women is out of the need to bring diversity within the organization. It indicates that the growth of women into managerial positions within organizations is slow. This is caused by structural barriers existence and discriminative concepts. The decline is also attributed to individual deficiencies and differences. The website also explains the challenges that women face in the work places, as opposed to men. More than this, it offers advice to women on how they can overcome this.
Management, 2012. Women in management. [Online] Available at < http://management.about.com/od/womenminorities/Women_in_Management.htm> [accessed 28 January 2012].
- The empowered woman
This information in the website explains why it is necessary for women to be managers. It mainly focuses on strengthening women to take up the leadership positions. It also has a vision of building the world's business leaders and entrepreneurs. They also explain that an empowered woman is able to empower her family and community. She, therefore, becomes of extensive use as opposed to a man. The website indicates that the strengthening of these women serves as a social norm. It actually serves to empower the nation as women represent the minority in the society. Their representation thus serves as a norm in all societies.
Cedpa., 2012. Global Women in management. [Online] Available at < http://www.cedpa.org/section/training/gwim> [accessed 28 January 2012].
- Slow growth in women leadership
The author brings forth the content of the Government Accountability office that indicated that the progress of women in managerial positions is remarkably low. It indicates that, in 2000, there were 39% women in managerial positions as opposed to 2007 where there were 40%. This indicates a very slow growth over the years. It also cites enthusiasm, in the increase in the women managers. The factors that must change for the enthusiasm to last include closing the education gap that exists between women and men. The other factor is engaging more companies to support the role of women managers within organizations. The author also states that women graduates are increased.
Bolshaw, L, 26. Jan. 2011. Davies Report one year later. Financial Times.
- More men than women
The article reports that the men in management are more than the women in management it reports that there are no women among the one hundred most effective world executive managers. It indicates that the first woman appears in the 111th rank. This is Carol Meyrowitz of TJX. The article also reports that very few women who are making it to the top even when they receive support. The article indicates that the presence of women brings about richer discussions. The article also indicates that gender equality brings about women empowerment. It also brings forth more women in power bringing forth diversity in the market place.
It is undeniable that women have taken the bull by the horn by stepping where culture suggested they would not. The university statistics indicate there are more women grandaunts than men are. This is indicative of the fact that women in management will increase. This is especially made easier by a culture that incorporates this change. They, however, still have to be ready for challenges such as a negative perspective from some companies. Thus, it will take more patience from these women, but eventually they will take the lead in management. Women should believe in their abilities and engage in furthering their skills to handle the situation of leadership.