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Management is defined as the coordination and organization of the activities of an enterprise in accordance with clearly defined guidelines, and with an aim of achieving the set goals. Management is comprised of; staffing, organizing, controlling, planning and leading. In management there are three entrenched theories of classical management: Henri Fayol’s (administrative theory), Fredrick Taylor’s (Scientific Management), and Max Weber’s (Bureaucracy). These theories formed the foundation of other new schools of thought with each new school tending to complement the previous one.
Each individual used his own approach to management depending with his views. Fayol proposed that any organization had six functions: commercial; accounting; managerial; technical; security and financial (Robbins, 2002). Of the six functions he believed the managerial concept, to predict and plan, to organise, to instruct, to harmonize, and control to be quiet dissimilar from the other functions (Ramesh, 1972). Fayol also contributed heavily in identifying general principals of management: authority and responsibility; unity of command; subordination of individual interest to general interest; division of work; unity of direction; centralization; stability of tenure of personnel; order; personnel’s remuneration and spirit de corps. Throughout a large fraction of the 20th century Fayols view on management remained very fashionable. Fayols proposal was in contrast to the purely scientific examinations of work and organization.
Max Weber, German Sociolist followed the classical approach and developed his theory of Bureaucracy, which portrays the arrangement and design of businesses characterised by formalised set of laws and regulations and a hierarchy of authority that serve to guide the coordinated functioning of the organization. Basic suggestions of the Classical approach by Max Weber include:
- Management is considered as a chain of interconnected functions.
- Learning principles of management is made through the past understanding of actual practicing stewards.
- As business atmosphere consists of consistet cycles exhibiting a fundamental unity of realities, functions and ideologies of management derived through procedure of empirical interpretation are suitable for common application.
- Emerging new managers through formal education and case study can develop proficiency and competency in management notions and practices.
- The classical approach also recognised the significance of economic competence and formal organizational make-up as steering pillars of management success.
- Business activity is based on financial benefit. Organizations should consequently control economic inducements.
Fredrick Taylor is recognized as the father of modern management due to the following contributions in management; he begun his career as the management consultant , theorist and ‘guru’, as a foreman in labor fields he was made an engineer due to his quick advancement in management. His point of view was kindly towards workers, he considered human labor very much as compared to machine work to achieve efficiency. His theories on management were promoted worldwide. Economic development through efficient and productive work was Taylor's personal view of his works.
Performance appraisal methods
There are a variety of ways through which the performance of human resource can be evaluated. However, it is imperative to note that the methods discussed herewith are not mutually exclusive and hence can be employed simultaneously.
Critical incident method
In this performance evaluation method, a form of study is conducted with the aim of identifying the incidences that an employee either did something outstanding or something that needs improvement. After such analysis, if an employee is found to have done something good,, he is rewarded and if his performance failed to meet the set standards, appropriate steps are taken to enable him improve his performance.
Weighted Checklist Method
This method is applied where jobs are evaluated on basis of descriptive statements. Such descriptions entail effective and ineffective behaviors in the job context. This implies that the performance of a worker is regarded to be good if he exhibits positive behaviors in the work place, otherwise not.
Management by objectives (MBO)
In this method, managers and other employees set some objectives that should be achieved. At the end of a certain period, say a financial year, the final results are benchmarked against the objectives. In organizations where the output is measured in terms of units, an employee is expected to produce a certain number of units for a certain period. If he manages to do so, then his performance is regarded as positive and may therefore be eligible for rewards. The primary purpose of this method is to ensure that organizational goals are met while keeping the work force motivated.
360 degree performance appraisal Method
In this criterion, employees are expected to give their own assessment of the performance of their colleagues. Such assessments are treated with confidentiality and are usually anonymous. With this regard, terms like performance assessments of 180 or 540 are common.
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