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Human resource management practices have significantly evolved over the past few decades. Among the emerging trends has been outsourcing employment. The market globalization among many other factors has influenced, for instance, the United States human resource practice has always gave the need for employers to design a fixed rate of pay in high organization. This was a practice commonly known as High-Involvement and Low-Involvement HRM (Human Resource Management) on business performance.
Sociodemographic dynamics and factors have been combined by Human resource managers who are particularly interested in attracting, managing and retaining talented young staff or human capital. Organizations are looking for highly skilled, talented, motivated and innovative minds to take catapult their organizations to the next level. However, on the other hand, changes in the demographic profile of many western countries mean that there may well be a significant reduction in the number of young people and thus in the number of highly skilled, talented human capital. Another aspect that threatens human resource management is the fact that the mobility and market forces mean that talented people may be easily be lured away by organizations in other sectors that provide a better package. Thus, there is, and will no doubt continue to be a “war for talent.”Organizations have to fight for a small and perhaps decreasing pool of talented young people. Many Human Resources (HR) professionals have talent spotters at business schools; they may have close rapport or relationships with career counselors, academics professionals, and head hunters who believe they know how to spot.
One of the key drivers from the business environment that is constantly reshaping organizations and has contributed immensely on how employees are managed is technology.
Technology has transformed the human resource management landscape tremendously. In today’s fast paced global business environment, organizations are forced to explore numerous new ways and ideas of coming up with new products and services. Organizations are focusing their concerted efforts on innovations. Innovations have paved way for organizations, companies to continuously look for new ways to innovate more quickly and more effectively beyond their core markets and products. Majority of organizations outsource a good number of their technological needs. For instance, a technological breakthrough by a competitor could have a devastating effect on the company’s bottom line.
Environmental factors; Human resource management systems are developed by organizations to respond or in attempt to control its external environment (Frink and Klimoski 1998). They suggested that environmental factors such as industry factors and standards, professionals and certifying organizations including the legal system affect the human resource management systems. For example, an organization might create a requirement for monthly safety inspections in an attempt to maintain compliance with the external factor of Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements.
Organizational factors are also conceptualized to have a direct effect on the Human Resource Management Systems developed and utilized by the organization (Frink & Klimoski, 1998). The Human Resource Management Systems can be affected in a situation or to an extent where an organization is centralized (Ferris et al., 1997).
Organizations differ from each other and each organization is unique in it managerial and operations. Human Resource functions are the tasks performed in all organizations to provide for support and to co-ordinate human resources. They include various activities performed in an organization for a smooth running of an organization. The functions include:
- hiring new personnel for a new post or job opening,
- growing the work place (Human resource development),
- Rewards and ensuring the observing of an accepted code of conduct, rules.
In the activities of a human resource practitioner, among them includes:
- Establishing the requirements of an individual job in the organization by doing job analyses.
- Looking ahead to see what Human Resource (HR) resource the organization needs to achieve its goals, and developing and implementing a plan to meet these requirements.
- Recruiting the people or personnel the organization needs to achieve its goals.
- Selecting and hiring workers to fill job vacancies in an organization.
- Orientation of new employees-showing them around the organization and how it works.\
Selection techniques must at all times comply with the federal laws and guidelines.
Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) is a trend in today’s Human resource management that successfully integrates and executes human resources management (HRM) methods and functions.
In recommendation of the latest in Strategic Human Resource Management practices which are meant to streamline and transform human resource practition. A job analysis is a good example of a system which enhances the quality of human resource. Job analysis is a systematic process of collecting data for determining knowledge, skills, and abilities among many other credentials. Information collected through job analysis is applied to most Human resource Management activities, such as recruitment and selection, development of a comprehensive compensation system, human resource planning, career development and training, performance evaluation, risk management and job design.
In Recruitment and selection, Strategic human resources management depends on the successful recruitment and selection of qualified individuals. Recruitment is the process of attracting qualified candidates to apply for vacant positions within an organization. Selection is the final stage of the recruitment process, when decisions are made to fill those positions. In public and nonprofit organizations, the recruitment and selection processes are mainly for competent employees for critical responsibilities because people are central to delivering the programs and services that constitute these organization’s reason for existence.
Strategic Human resources management also entails an internal and external supply of qualified candidates. The internal supply of candidates is influenced by training and development and by transfer, promotion and retirement policies. It also lays emphasis on assessment of incumbent staff competencies is crucial. It included an assessment of employees’ competent levels which provides information in determining the number of those available for and capable of fulfilling future functional requirements. It provides salient information as to what recruitment, training and other strategies which needs to be deployed to address workforce gaps and surplus.
Human resource management should and will be regarded as valuable business partner and important organizational resource when the business units are satisfied with the results achieved through Human Performance and process Improvement. The human resource management system is a process meant to make organizations, corporations including nonprofit organizations to embrace efficiency, high quality output as a result of a thorough process which brings out the best out of the existing human capital in an organization and the wider pool of human capital.