Custom «Cyberwars and Cyber Laws» Essay Paper Sample
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There are numerous contradictions in the public interest of the international cooperation to ensure information security at the global level encounters. The perspective of the formation of the global regime, which should ensure information security, depends on the positions of states as the most influential actors of world politics. Often, the absence of an institutionally or formally fixed governing reflects the interests of individual states seeking to maintain leadership in any area. The similar strategy may be applied to support the formation of the multitude of disparate organizations and institutions regulating the interaction in a separate area of international relations. It is due to the fact that it allows the one to choose various norms and rules of interaction fixed in these agreements, depending on situational interests. Therefore, the cyberwars are called to achieve dual aims, which are either advantageous or negative as there is no exact legal framework to control cyber attacks.
The Essence of Cyberwars
According to the international approach, globalization has led to major changes in world politics in the form of involving influential computer networks in the life of the states. Defense experts predict the future of the international system in this area. The concept itself cyberwar has become firmly entrenched in the lexis of military and information security specialists, as well as politicians (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). It is also spread among the representatives of the expert community as there is no single assessment of the essence of the term. The main reason is that appealing to the notion of war should be based on the clear legal definition, and, as a consequence, cannot be used arbitrarily. According to the study by Zeadally and Flowers (2014), it is using the Internet and related technological and information means by a state. As a rule, as the scholars mention, it is done with the aim of causing damage to military, technological, economic, political, information security, and sovereignty areas of another states (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). The cyberspace tightens the governments on the battlefield of information operations to a large extent because the growing use of cyberspace has affected the attractiveness and effectiveness of cyber weapons. As an economy developing economically, it needs to conduct proactive active actions against its rivals. These ones have already made it a victim of cyber attacks (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). The states of regional and subregional types, which are hostile to other governments, can commit disguised attacks on the cyberspace of other country or countries. Cyber attacks represent a serious threat to the state and deserve a close attention (Eun & Aßmann, 2016). The alleged invasions raised concerns about the state of cybersecurity and demanded the reliable Internet and proper control over cybercrimes (Eun & Aßmann, 2016). Initiatives at the state level to develop an efficient, protected and adequately protected cyberspace can ensure its future through the creation of a robust cyber threat containment system (Eun & Aßmann, 2016). Thus, an absolutely protected and safe cyber network is an urgent requirement for the state.
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It is possible to characterize cyberwar as a kind of military operations using computers and the Internet. According to the investigations by Dombrowski and Demchak (2014) those ones are aimed primarily at the most important systems of functioning and life support of the government, such as power plants, energy networks, transport routes, water supply, and sanitation systems. The authors point to fact that currently a cyberterrorist, with the help of special software and computer technology, can inflict a huge damage to computer networks and information contained in them (Dombrowski & Demchak, 2014). It is also done with a goal of achieving certain ideological and political goals, including a change power or disruption in the work of authorities, as well as sabotage, the country’s life-support management system, the theft of military data or civilian assets, and the resources for the economic damage of the state (Dombrowski & Demchak, 2014). The so-called cyber-weapons have the property of a double action, on the one hand, they deal with the massive losses, and, on the other hand, they defeat electoral purposes (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). Everything, in this case, depends on the intent of attackers. At the moment, due to the abilities of cyberwar, it is able to cover the whole world, since computers and servers participating can be at any place of the universe.
The Essence of Cyber Law
At present, the new opportunities to form a global regime of international information security are being established. For a long time, for instance, the United States has held the leading position in the field of information technology development, consciously limiting the possibilities of shaping the world legal ruling for information security. Nevertheless, the change in the nature of threats to information security has led to the fact that the most developed in the information sphere states proved to be extremely vulnerable (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). The military power of the UAE is closely connected with the search of possible ways to overcome cyber threats and cyber attacks to stop the oil production in the country.
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The certain obstacle to the multilateral negotiation process in this area is that for many states the issues of the military political use of information and communication technology are sensitive. Therefore, they are not always ready to openly discuss it. It is also very controversial to include the issues of regulating the content of information networks in the sphere of discussions during international negotiations (Warf & Fekete, 2016). Numerous states now insist on applying the terms information security and information space. They are assuming a broader approach to the definition of referring to a security object. In this case, it is not only the network equipment and software, but also broader social and humanitarian aspects of the information society development (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). The UAE, as the country, employs the best security agents to ensure that the cyberspace is firmly protected. Therefore, the concept of cybersecurity is covered, according to the international standards and existing cyber law. However, there is also the certain development in this field. The discussions during the activity and debates on the drafts of above-mentioned resolutions have made it possible to work out at the variant of neutral terminology (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). The approach of the UAE to cybersecurity is that the country applies all possible attempts to avoid the cyberwars, which are likely to emerge as the state possesses numerous online sources on its income (Warf & Fekete, 2016). It means that the UAE should secure its systems to prevent the cyber attacks from the competitors. The search for a mutually acceptable language with the aim of finding a compromise has led to the fact that the texts of resolutions are addressed to the problem of information and communication technology in the context of international security, malicious use of information, as well as communication technology (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). Thus, by putting the disputed terminology issues in brackets, the fragile compromise should be worked at.
As a part of the emerging regime for ensuring international information security, the common interests of states and businesses will establish the tender atmosphere of trust and strengthen online relations. As a rule, it is achieved through principles, norms, rules, and decision-making procedures to integrity and accessibility, protection of confidentiality, reliability, and the privacy of information (Farrell & Glaser, 2017). The adoption of the rules for the states’ conduct in this area can be an important step towards the development of international cooperation (Farrell & Glaser, 2017). The cyber law proceeds from the assumption that the Internet has given a rise to new types of social relationships taking place in cyberspace (Farrell & Glaser, 2017). As a result, it has become compulsory to communicate new cyber laws to standardize them. The disagreement in providing this methodology is the fact that the unbelievable speediness and volume of inter-ethnic communication being directed via the Internet preclude the application of existing legal norms. The world community has to be directed at the mutual cooperation to fight against cyber attacks to promote the principles of security at the state level (Zeadally & Flowers, 2014). Finally, there is an urgent need to establish the necessary legal framework to control cyberspace.
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It should be noted that the main issues for the discussion of the world community should be the development of rules governing the conduct of aggressive actions in cyberspace. This problem requires an early resolution since the created samples of cyber weapons differ in a global reach and an instantaneous impact without any way of receiving a warning about its application. Such features make it conceivable to connect it with the strategic aggressive ammunition. However, the expansion and use of cyber weapons are not limited to any worldwide arrangement. Opposition and rivalry between state and non-state actors in cyberspace are already happening, although it would be incorrect to call it the war from a scientific and international legal point of view. Obviously, there is a need in elaborating a unified doctrine of responding to the threats of this type associated with cyberspace for aggressive purposes.
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