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This article focuses on the application of language in promoting meaningful and successful management practices. The author believes that effective communication in daily situations depends on the use of language that motivates and brings out inspiration. Catling starts by asking two fundamental questions related to: the choice of words in business environments and how they influence both personal and general success in other people; and how often we think about the words to use when communicating. The author expresses a lot of concern in the good and harm that words can cause, if chosen wise and recklessly, respectively.
It is hereby asserted that words can be productive, while, at the same time, can be destructive tools. As an innovation consultant, the author has a wide scope of organizations, ranging from manufacturers and charities to universities and other professional service firms. It is an amazing concept to tune into the language that is common in a given organization as the author reiterates. For instance, in a given business organization, the management could be struggling to get individuals to think in a creative way. It became a very common observance to respond to individuals who offered colleagues with ideas.
The author says that some words, chosen in a speech, may not initially appear as harmful, but the consequences can have a very detrimental effect in the business organization. The management body in any business organization makes every effort to encourage brave and tentative thinking and new ideas as well. Over time, people seem to have given up and have stopped being creative, as highlighted in this article. It reiterates that people assume the selection of the words that they use in communication. In most cases, people normally babble words without making a consideration of the impact the words will have on the listeners.
Writing down what we hear and the things we say, on a number of occasions, can be useful in tuning our language. It is very important, according to the author, for purposes of ensuring success and excellence in business organization. Catling gives this advice in order to correct the very simple aspects of our speech but which have a lot of impact in the organizational setting. Words like “We might” and “We will” have a very significant effect on how the message of the speaker will be received. Some speakers are not outright. They always talk of “Yes but….” This is what characterizes their communication. This largely influences the success of the language and general communication of the speaker. Others may talk of “Yes and…” indicating some tendency to add on something after an agreement of some sort. All these count a lot in determining communication success in the organizational setting.
The author shows the importance of communication in creating an image and/or perception in the setting of the business organization. She gives an example of a person, taking probabilities on difficult tasks. There are different ways through which an individual may respond and, therefore, this determines the success that may be realized at both individual and organizational level. Such words like “I might do it……I will do it…I can do it…” have a lot of influence on the kind of personality that is displayed. They will also be very contributive to the success of the tasks that lies before the person. The main purpose of any business organization is to win business and/or make sales. Therefore, there are some words that get things done, whereas, there are others which simply indicate signs of failure. For instance, the author gives an example of words and statements that get things done: “We have the ability to get the client exactly what they need so we will win the contract”. This is a very promising position, rather than saying: “We are not so big so we will probably not be able to get the contract”. The choice of words, actually, determines the level of success and this is what the article stresses.
Yee Ng, K. Dyne, L. and Ang, L. (2009). From Experience to Experiential Learning: Cultural Intelligence as a Learning Capability for Global Leader Development. Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 8, No. 4, 51K526
Yee et al. (2009) tackle the topic about having global leaders who are effective in the successful running of modern businesses and organizations. The author generally explores on the idea of having global leaders who can fit in different environments. Though it is a rare occurrence, managing and leading across borders is considered a very effective process. Even though international job assignments are recognized as very imperative mechanisms for the development of global leaders in business organizations, this article highlights on the ways, through which current studies have basically focused on the performance of the leader during global assignments. The authors integrate a study on cultural intelligence and experiential learning to make a proposition of a process pattern that emphasizes on the way leaders translate and handle their international job assignment encounters into learning outcomes important for the development of international leadership.
The model that has been presented in this article positions cultural intelligence as a go-between that develops the likelihood that people on international job assignments will aggressively take part in the four steps of experiential learning through reflection, conceptualization, experience and experimentation. These stages of experiential learning lead to universal leadership self-efficacy, accurate leadership models across borders and cultures, ethno-relative approach towards other different cultures and finally the leadership styles flexibility. The model presented in this article has very important implications for the training and selection of people together with the practices of organization linked to international work assignments from a perspective of development.
Yee et al (2009) assert that, while international assignments are regarded as a vital approach in developing global leaders, there is no enough research that has laid emphasis on the way the leaders, actually, make a transformation of their experiences at the time they are on their assignments into learning that will promote the effectiveness of universal leadership. Through the integration of study on Cultural Intelligence (CQ) and experiential learning theory, the authors are committed to developing a better mastery of the way and reason why global leaders get to learn from their international job assignments, hence, becoming much better global business leaders. The authors suggest that CQ is a very important package of learning abilities that permits the global leaders to gain developmentally from the experiences they get from these international assignments through the facilitation of active participation in the aforementioned four stages of the experiential learning. Therefore, CQ promotes the transformation of this kind of experience into experiential learning, as indicated in the title of the article, “from experience to experiential learning.”
Attaining excellence in global leadership roles has been the core objective and subject in this article. The article opens another chapter in global business leadership and management, where they present important communication that addresses the challenges, faced by modern business organizations, when operating on a global scale. This article makes recommendation to researchers to adopt a developmental view and perception, when carrying out studies on expatriates and short-term travelers. By doing so, the authors in this article believe that the developmental benefits of international job assignments can be fully maximized for both business organizations and the individuals as well. The authors are ideally concerned with turning on the experience of these leaders with international job assignment into experiential learning.
Repkina, N. (2011). Memory in the Learning: Activity of the Schoolchild. Journal of Russian and East European Psychology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 11–23.
This article makes a proposition of one possible method to the development of concepts that are pertinent to the memory of human beings, founded on the consequences of studying it in the process of education from a perception of a framework and structure of activities, whose internal rationale need a shift to the research of memory in the real-life context activity of learning. The emphasis, made by Repkina, is on the connection of the human memory to the process of the self regulation of the subject but not the psychological framework of an action. Due to the reflexive nature, goal-setting produces mnemic processes of a corresponding nature.
The general concept that is highlighted in the problem of connecting education to the memory processes. This problem is presented as one of the main issues both for the contemporary scientific memory psychology and for modern pedagogy. The task that has been dealt with initially is the definition of general terms. The author has presented a secondary search and information on memory studies. The study by Repkina is developed from previous vital studies from people like Zinchenko, who carried out a research of memory in the A.N Leontiev’s framework, based on activity context. The initial studies already showed the distinctiveness of his position. From the very beginning, he formulated the memory investigating task in the activity context. Thus, Zinchenko came up with a very important research that opened the way of much deeper understanding of the objective paradigms of the development and functioning of memory. Zinchenko highlighted the need for carrying out research in the real-life activity and, in particular, in the initial stages of learning in school.
Preliminary study sought to establish the success, realized in remembering specific methods that made it easy to work on tasks of a given kind. Elkonin and Davydov had, actually, proved in the experimental education conditions that the formative education contents should be founded from the start not on the action modes themselves but, instead, on the particular sources, the premises, based on object, the foundations that form the theoretical concepts content. The question of the unique memory features, which makes it possible to productively remember concepts of theory and their respective systems, were not dealt with in previous studies. Moreover, while previous research acknowledged that voluntary memory in education is equally important to involuntary memory, both its role in education together with the balance between the memory types was not determined.
The author also explores the conditions in which the involuntary memory is valuable. They are pointed out when education is structured in a way that the objectives and student’s actions modes are predetermined from outside, through the teacher. The author examines whether these conditions are sufficient for experimental learning, when the students’ activeness assumes the kind of learning activity. This is the moment, when the action goals and ways of conducting them are not predetermined for the student externally, but when they make a presumption that the student takes part in his individual trial-and-exploration action. Solving the general issue, put forward by Zinchenko, as a study of memory not inside the structure of the process of assimilation but in the learning activity context as the highest nature of the learning activeness of the subject, was very instrumental in giving this study a strong foundation and background. Thus, Repkina contends, the main objective of memory function that ends up being its reflexive organization that is directly in the accumulation process but not merely the retention or the selection and definition of experience. The theoretical strength and practical prospective of such memory interpretation are verified through the material Repkina got from mass-scale and experiential education that was aimed at enhancing the schoolchild a learning activity subject.
Shiner, R. (1998). How Shall We Speak of Children's Personalities in Middle Childhood? A Preliminary Taxonomy. University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus. Psychological Bulletin Vol. 124, No. 3, 308-332
Shiner explores a need in researching about the personality traits and character in middle childhood that has been neglected by developmental researchers. She sees a lot of questions that have not been answered, concerning the personality structure in childhood. This article shows the developmental structure for understanding character in middle childhood and takes a critical review of five temperament and personality framework models in this age group: A. Thomas and S. Chess model, A. H. Buss and R. Plomin model, M. K. Rothbart model, Block and J. H. Block model and the Big Five. A number of strong personality dimensions that are common to these mentioned models and the wider developmental and adult personality writings are, then, expounded: social inhibition, aggressiveness, sociability, dominance, pro-social disposition, negative emotionality, attention/persistence, mastery motivation, activity level and inhibitory control. These dimensions are representative of the basic taxonomy of personality character for analyzing individual development questions in childhood.
The author found out that various lower order personality aspects have been suggested as offering the character building blocks in the middle childhood and in the early adolescence. The article has identified four more speculative aspects other than the preliminary taxonomy aforementioned. They included seeking excitement, dependency, shyness with others and well-being. All these aspects with the exceptions of mastery motivation and dominance are pointed out as either personality or temperament traits in at least one of the several models that were formerly described. Again, many of these aspects are seen in more than one form. Some of these character aspects are so strong across these models or across the broader developmental literature that their status as cohesive aspects in middle childhood range is established. Particularly, negative emotionality, activity level, inhibition and aggressiveness seem to be well distinct, sturdy aspects. Other character traits require clearer differentiation, specifically the dimensions that tap behavioral constraint.
The article opens up a research field that has not been fully exploited. There are a lot of measurement matters in evaluating personality amongst children in the middle ages. A lot of information that requires more research has been revealed. There is much to be learnt, concerning the framework of both lower order as well as higher order character traits in childhood and work is still expected to be done at these analysis levels. Shiner states that people’s understanding of higher degree systems of personality in childhood is particularly weak since there is very little work that has been completed in this field. In order to evaluate continuity and the change from childhood to adult personality, nevertheless, it will be particularly useful to have a high level understanding of the higher order qualities in childhood. The early high order character traits can be related to higher order character traits in adulthood, which are the developmental targets.
Generally, the article shows the vigorous debate that has existed amongst researchers who endeavor to elucidate a higher order adult personality structure. Despite the same challenges that face developmental researchers, the objective of delineating higher order character systems in childhood have all along been a significant one. The author has laid fundamental background for researchers to study the link between high order and low order traits in childhood, as a way of clarifying the abstract core of each. Ideally, study on childhood personality will continue at both analysis levels since each of the levels may afford a varied kind of predictive power. Shiner says that the lower order traits may effectively predict the functioning of children in very specific domains.
Barrett, L., Tugade, M. and Engle, R. (2004). Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity and Dual-Process. Theories of the Mind. Psychological Bulletin Vol. 130, No. 4, 553–573
Barrett et al discuss on individual differences in working memory capacity and dual-process. Dual-process theories about the mind are everywhere in psychology. An essential principle of such theories is that behavior is established through the interplay of controlled and automatic processing. Barrett and his friends examine personal differences in the capacity to direct attention as a chief contributor to disparities in working memory capacity (WMC). The article discusses the massive implication of this personal difference for a horde of dual-process theories in personality, clinical, cognitive and social psychology. Moreover, the authors propose numerous new fields of investigation that develop directly from the application of the WMC concept to mind dual-process theories.
The main executive dimension of working memory has had a lot of influence in cognitive psychology over the previous number of decades, although only in the recent past is being taken into consideration in other fields of research and psychological theory. The authors in this article have made suggestions that a personal difference is one dimension of the central executive. The ability to direct attention has much to provide to dual-process memory accounts. The inclusion of this personal difference into theories of dual-process will present a robust and a more coherent human behavior account. The central executive is one dimension of the working memory, and personal differences in the capability of directing attention are significant contributors to personal differences in WMC. The article generally reviewed literature of research on the way of measuring and conceptualizing WMC and proposed that it could moderate processes that are gotten from dual-process accounts.
The article’s main goal is not to make an argument that the present dual-process theories or their investigational findings are essentially wanting. The article argues that the factors other than WMC, like former knowledge, experience and motivation, are less important. Instead, the article suggests that individual-level variance, confined in dual-process stimulated experiments (classically taken as error, or inside-group variability), could partly be meaningfully described through personal differences in WMC. The article has also considered several domains, from perspective-taking to self-regulation, where the WMC concept may be very useful.
Ironically, the WMC consideration has made the authors to move away from the typical dual-process theories in two methods. First, processing that is controlled permits people to interface flexibly with their surrounding, and the flexibility source is the ability to direct attention in a manner that is goal-directed, regardless of the representation of those goals in conscious responsiveness and awareness. Therefore, controlled processing has been defined by the extent to which the goal-directed attention is at work but not through the control phenomenology. Again, the authors briefly discuss the attention dynamics. This clarifies the goal directed attention that is usually the prerequisite that permits more automatic kinds of attention deployment to take place.
The interplay between these two kinds of attention allotment, particularly, when measured at the neuroanatomical level, may confuse the need for the difference between controlled and automatic processing whatsoever, thereby, significantly revising the dual-process tale as the authors now have come to its knowledge. The WMC concept does not replace the significance of goals and motivations. It is just an important condition for ratifying them. Apparently, a lot of research is warranted to completely comprehend all the WMC implications for issues behavioral management.