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School bullying is a common issue nowadays in most schools. The intervention or prevention programs for school bullying would lessen bullying behaviors in schools. There are varied literature reviews that have tried to reveal the ways intervention or prevention program may help to overcome the issue of bullying in schools. Ikuko, Terrill and Danielle (2011) examine the relationship that exists between victimization of cyber bullying and the problems among the youths. School bullying is common, and it is practiced in various ways. One of them is through cyber bullying whereby friends bully their friends because they want to be seen powerful and dominating towards others. The only way this can be eliminated is through prevention programs directed towards the elimination of cyber bullying. This is vital because it will lessen the problem of cyber bullying, which might trigger conflicts. The research findings carried out reveals that cyber bullying intervention programs are essential. This is because they will provide essential information that would contribute to effective prevention or intervention development programs. The intervention and prevention programs will help in lessening the cyber bullying problems at school thus reducing the problem of school bullying.
Bullying behaviors are widespread among school students. Therefore, providing prevention or intervention programs will enable teachers to eliminate or lessen the problem. Frequent bullying behaviors are associated with depression which may contribute to suicide. A research interview carried out revealed that frequent bullying contributes to high risks of committing suicide among the youths (Klomek, Kleinman, Altschuler, Marrocco, Amaka &Gould, 2011). Klomek et al. (2011) revealed that bullying victims may develop depression later in their lives, and some may have psychiatric problems. Those students who experience this problem are reported with cases of depression or suicidality. Therefore, it is recommendable to carry out assessment behaviors in screening protocols in order to curb the problem before it is too late.
In addition, carrying out cross-sectional studies as one of the intervention program is essential. This will provide sufficient evidence that bullying behaviors constitute, hence providing a solution to it. Carrying out longitudinal studies is vital because they distinguish the predictive risk factors that may cause depression and suicide. The research study carried out revealed that children under the age of eleven years who suffer from depression bouts when bullied (Klomek et al., 2011). Bullying behaviors are commonly among high school students especially to those who have joined in the school are mostly victimized. This requires teachers to find means of preventing this phenomenon before it might affect the performance of the students being bullied. This can be done through monitoring the students’ behaviors because some of them may suffer from depression, and they may not be active in the school curriculum. Monitoring of their performance and the behaviors of these students in class are vial. This is because it will help the tutor to come up with solutions of curbing the problem before it may cause a significant impact among the students.
Branson and Cornell (2009) in their article reveal the significance of carrying out intervention programs. They examine the effectiveness of carrying out anti-bullying programs directed towards bullying reduction. The researchers who study aggressiveness of peer usually employ peer nomination when carrying out their study programs. This is crucial because this will help them to come up with clear reports on the way peers behave towards their fellow colloquies. From the research carried out on the behaviors of peer, it was discovered that bullying is linked with school maladjustments (Branson and Cornell, 2009). Therefore, there is a need to carry out assessment activities with an aim of determining the ways through which bullying can be reduced. Assessment programs are vital because they will provide means through which these problems can be minimized in schools.
Bullying is a national health problem that affects many millions of students (Juvonen & Gross, 2008). The rapid increase of technology such as online communications has contributed immensely to cyber bullying problems. The carried out research revealed out that there is a connection between cyber bullying and school bullying. Some students spend most of their time in computer laboratories bullying other students. The school bullying is a result of increased social anxiety. This problem can contribute to conflicts in schools whereby students may end up fighting or hating each other. There are various ways through which this problem can be reduced, and this is through carrying out prevention programs. One of them is through formulating school policies that will eliminate the cyber bullying. The school administration would put strict laws and regulations that may help in lessening cyber bullying in school. Another prevention program is through educating children about the risks of bullying. It is crucial for parents to educate their children about the risk associated with cyber bullying. This is one way of earlier intervention or prevention program that will enable students to stop their bullying behaviors. Another way of preventing this problem is through preventing and dealing with bullying students. This will enable others to fear bullying others thus lessening bullying activities in school.
Merrill, Gueldner, Ross and Isava (2008) analyze the way intervention programs are effective ways of curbing school bullying. The authors conducted a meta- analysis of intervention research in order to determine the way intervention programs are effective in lessening school bullying. The applied techniques of meta-analysis are used in order to obtain the average effect estimates of bullying in schools. It was found that the intervention studies produced meaningful and significance positive effects through the use of intervention programs. The research study indicated that intervention programs are vital and effective because they produce positive outcomes. The intervention program influences knowledge, mind-set and self-perception rather than bullying behaviors. Without intervention programs, school bullying can lead to serious issues such as poor performance and poor social relationships.
Researchers have tried to provide strategies essential for bullying prevention. Bullying was not seen as a big problem in the past, but it has become the center of interest in the modern society. This is because the researchers have tried to provide evidence on the way bullying has become a social problem in the society. Mostly, school bullying is seen as one way that contributes to poor performance in schools. Bullying is associated with development of psychological disorder, which might cause a threat to the health of an individual. The prevention programs have been formulated as a way of preventing this problem in schools. According to Spiel, Salmivalli and Smith (2011), bully prevention can become successful only if proper strategies are formulated. This is because bullying is an enormous problem that affects an individual psychological contributing to other associated disorders. One of the strategies that can lessen bullying is through carrying out anti-bullying program. The effective prevention programs can be implemented in schools in order to reduce bullying behaviors.
Another strategy is an assessment of the problem that contributes to bullying within and outside the classrooms. The researchers reveal that the students can provide accurate information on the ways bullying occur in their learning institutions. Therefore, there is a need for assessment programs to be carried in order to find means through which bullying occurs in school. This will help one to understand varied ways through which bullying occurs and the type of bullying, which occurs mostly in the learning institutions. The survey program offers baseline information, which is essential for making assessments after formulating prevention strategies (Spiel, Salmivalli & Smith, 2011). The assessment strategies will lessen the bullying behaviors. This is because it can help teachers to identify the matters that may arise and find solutions to them.
Martin-Storey, Temcheff, Martin and Stack (2009) argue that in order for learning institutions to reduce bullying behaviors, they should create a change in the school. The changing climate will alter some social norms and perception created by bullying students. Tutors and parents should be come intolerant to bullying behaviors and consistently identify those behaviors. They should provide adequate discipline to students with bullying behaviors in order to create a better learning environment for other non-bullying students. A change should take place through providing education programs that emphasize the way bullying may affect the students. Tutors and parents should work together through providing students with activities that will discourage idleness thus reducing bullying behaviors. Education program about the impact of bullying is essential. This is because it will make student aware of the consequence that may result from engaging in bullying behaviors (Martin-Storey et al., 2009).
Integrated methods for bullying prevention should be provided. The study carried out reveals that the best method of preventing bullying behaviors is through incorporating intervention programs with varied activities and education programs. These programs should be provided every year. The framework should be set, and everyone will participate in formulating guidelines essential for eliminating bullying behaviors. Setting of policies and rules directed towards preventing bullying behaviors is imperative. Parents and teachers should and identify those bullying behaviors that might affect the learning environment. This is essential because it will enable them to control those behaviors before they occur in the future (Spiel, Salmivalli & Smith, 2011).
Burns (2011) argues that bullying and harassment in learning can be reduced through continued education programs and intervention. The new students joining the new learning institutions in each year should be trained on the way they should behave in a learning environment. This is crucial because it will enable students to have high discipline that would enable them to concentrate in vital activities rather than bullying. Teachers should provide intervention programs as the ongoing basis. New studies have been conducted that reveal the way intervention is vital in a learning institution. Organized schools that aim at shaping the future behaviors of students should have access to the better anti-bullying programs. They should find suggestions and recommendations vital for creating change against the bad behaviors in school.
Moreover, Burns (2011) comments that earlier intervention should be practiced in schools in order to reduce bullying behaviors. Earlier intervention programs are vital because they enable those students who bully others to reduce bullying their fellow students. Providing appropriate punishments to bullying students are crucial. This is crucial because it will change the behavior of the student. It will act as an example to others who bully; hence students may exercise discipline of the highest order in school. Therefore, it is significant to punish students with such bullying behaviors that rather sending them away to a different school. This is because they will join a new school and continue with their bullying behaviors. In this way, one has not helped to prevent this behavior; thus, punishment should be instilled in schools continuously.
Swearer, Espelage, Vaillancourt and Hymel (2010) in their article review emphasize on the importance of school contributions towards critical factors that may hinder better performance of the school. They point out that prevention measures should be provided by the school authority in order to curb bullying behaviors. These authors provide a delineation of methodological challenges and assessment of successive factors that may prevent bullying. Moreover, they evaluate intervention programs that may help to lessen bullying behaviors in school. Positive behavioral interventions should be conducted, and teachers should provide support to students in order to help them maintain discipline in school. Swearer et al. (2010) tries to explain of school psychology and behavioral attitudes of students in assessing their behaviors in school.
Swearer et al. (2010) point out that bullying prevention program is a comprehensive approach that empowers students and enables them to work towards achieving their goals. This is because it enables teachers to eliminate substandard behaviors in school that might threaten the performance of students in school. Bullying is considered as one of the serious problems in school because it can trigger strikes and it might affect academic performance of students. It does not only affect the learning institutions, but the entire outside community. There anti-bullying programs that have been formulated and their aims are to fight against bullying in schools. The agency focuses on the treating effects of violence and finds ways of treating them. The programs employ strategies that are crucial in preventing bullying behaviors in school. One of the prevention programs is known as get connected, and it is a comprehensive prevention method suitable for lessening school bullying. It proactively eliminates bulling through communicating with the peers on the way they should be kind to their friends and work together to achieve success.
Naylor and Cowie (2000) point out that peers’ conflicts such as bullying behaviors and physical violence are common and they are ever increasing in the modern schools. Many peers witness the violence or conflicts taking place in school, but they fear to intervene and report the maters to school administration. The authors try to analyze the way intervention programs are crucial in preventing or lessening peer conflicts in schools. They explain the way it is essential for teachers to intervene through providing guidance and counseling to peers. The intention process involved in this case is the sharing of powers whereby the teachers will share powers with the students. Teachers would allow students to participate in intervention programs, and they should provide support to the peers. This is crucial because it will enable peers to learn from experience and work towards improving their behaviors.
Menzel (2009) points out that intervention and mediation programs may help in lessening the bullying behaviors at school. He argues that designing effective prevention program for bullying students is essential. In this case, the staff members should implement better programs that seek to improve the relationships of peers at school. Most psychologists argue that when designing an effective prevention program, there is a need of understanding the tendency of a child towards the way bullying influences individuals. This will enable teachers to understand the way they can tackle the problems that trigger conflicts in school. Creating public awareness through campaigns is one of the preventive was of overcoming the problems of bullying in schools. Public awareness campaigns should prevent bullying in schools. This is because it makes students understand more on the consequences of bullying behaviors.
Making earlier interventions is vital because it enables teachers to control bullying behaviors before they spread far within the learning institutions. Teachers should teach proper skills and values directed towards the elimination of bullying behaviors. Effective bullying intervention should reinforce protective and reduced risks factors that may benefit all the students. The school administration should provide universal interventions which are based on good caring and improved personal responsibilities (Menzel, 2009). Teachers should provide intensive intervention programs individually in order to provide support to both bullies and victims with individual support. The main objective is to create a culture that reduces all bullying behaviors immediately. All students should learn positive behaviors and join the anti-bullying programs in order to eliminate this behavior. This will enable them to create conducive learning environment that may help them to achieve their future goals.
The bullying intervention programs can only become successful if they incorporate some of the recommended issues. First, coordinating with various schools within the district whereby the students should become consistent with varied training programs imparted to them. The second recommendable issue is assessing the problems that may trigger conflicts in school. When carrying out intervention programs, it is vital to locate the place where bullying takes place. It is vital to administer parents and young girls for the purpose of better understanding. Establishment of the coordinating team would help to lessen the problem. This trained team should be in apposition of communicating well and should be knowledgeable. It is vital to establish a coordinating team when implementing intervention programs (Drewes, 2009). Involving all the school community will benefit all students to learn about anti-bullying skills.
Hazier, Miller, Carney and Green (2001) examine the way some programs such as prevention programs are crucial. It is vital to carry out intervention program individual because it will enable one to understand factors that contribute to bullying. Individual intervention programs can succeed through establishing a protocol for intervening and investigating on factors that contribute to bullying. This is crucial because it will enable one to find ways of overcoming the problems though seeking better solutions to overcome the impeding factors that contribute to bullying. It is essential to meet with the victim and then meet with bully. Both require additional development skills and strengthening them in the ways they should apply their skills. The intervention programs should address the underlying causes to bullying. Teachers should reinforce alternative and better behaviors that may help the bullying students to improve their behaviors.
The research study indicates that there are various ways though which intervene would help bullied students. Ellis (2006) reveals that a coherent set of strategies would help in solving the problems caused by bullying in schools. Bullying occurs due to different reasons and some bullying students lack empathy towards their friends. Bullies take advantages of social structure in a society and some engage in these activities and because of mental problems. The bullying behavior is condoned (Naylor and Cowie, 2000). The culture of the learning institutions can be a bully to the students. Therefore, teachers can intervene and work towards eliminating bullying behaviors that may impact on learning institution.
The school can intervene by providing emotional health and well-being of the overall social context. The example of intervention programs includes restorative practices, problem solving approach and problem solving approach carried out through training programs. Moreover, providing intervention programs such as support group methods are essential (David, Lynn & Ellis, 2010). This will enhance empathy and foster social attitudes within the group. In case, these methods would become successful, they would enhance group ethos through which it is possible to make reparation for the physical damage arising from bullying. Peer discussions are accepted widely because they act as one of the strategies of solving bullying issues. Peer supporter helps in solving the problem of bullying in schools. This is because they create awareness in the school and peer supporters may help in creating a better learning environment.
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
The theoretical and conceptual framework would focus on the cognitive behavioral theory. This is a psychotherapeutic approach that aims to solve dysfunctional behaviors of an individual. Ellis (2006) developed the cognitive behavioral theory, which tries to explain the way adolescent and young children make decisions. This framework developed through integration of behavioral and cognitive theory. The rationale premise of this theory is that individuals cause distress to themselves. The author emphasizes that individuals construct their own feelings of anxiety, depression and anger which makes them behave their own ways (Ellis, 2006). Ellis’s theory of cognitive behavior is the base on the psychological premises that human beings are rational and irrational. Every human being acts irrationally when making decisions, but this may trigger conflicts.
From the above literature reviews, one may comment that school bullying is common because human psychological disturbance results due to human rationality. The irrational thinking is accompanied by irrational events that may challenge or refute people’s irrational thinking. Therefore, school bullying occurs because some bullying students make irrational decisions or think that may affect other’s people’s welfare. This approach differs from other theories because it interprets the life events of individuals. Drewes (2009) noticed some psychological disturbances that are connected with the irrational beliefs. This is one of the reasons that contribute to maladaptive behaviors in the society. Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the theories linked with the student’s bullying behaviors in school. This is because some students involve in technical behaviors which may impact other students’ welfare. This is because of the way school students make irrational decisions.
Qualitative Research Design
The qualitative methodology would be used in gathering adequate information about the way intervention or prevention programs would lessen the school bullying. The research design would in-depth gather the qualitative information about school bullying and the way intervention program would lessen it. The research would help one to understand the behavior of human beings and the behaviors that govern them.
Will an Intervention or Prevention Program for school-bullying lessen bullying behaviors in school?
There will be a significant relationship between the school bullying behaviors and the intervention or prevention programs provided.
The smaller sample techniques would be needed rather than larger sampling techniques in finding the way intervention and prevention program would lessen bullying in school. A small subset of the total population would be sampled in order to provide clear data essential for further analysis.
Data Collection Procedures
Different data approaches would be used in collecting data is cognitive testing, which is a traditional qualitative method of data collection. The simple procedure would involve the following: choosing a set of data for carrying out cognitive or pilot testing. A pilot experiment would then be carried out to test the full-scale experiment design.
It is expected that the intervention or prevention program would produce better results. It is anticipated that after carrying out the intervention programs, the school bullying would lessen; hence creating a peaceful learning environment. Ikuko, Terrill and Danielle (2011) examine the relationship that exists between victimization of cyber bullying and the problems among the youths. This is expected to reduce if clear intervention programs would be carried out. Cyber bullying requires proper assessment and through teachers’ intervention program and this would contribute to reduction of cyber bullying.
A research interview carried out revealed that frequent bullying contributes to high risks of committing suicide among the youths (Klomek et al., 2011). However, if the intervention prams were used, there would be a positive outcome. This would be achieved through parents who may work together with parents in order to achieve better results. This program would lead to reduction of high risks of attempting suicide. Emotional health and well-being of the students would be achieved through educating students. This would contribute to reduction of bullying in schools.
Ellis (2006) examines the cognitive behavioral theory and this is vital because it would produce a better outcome, in case, it would be utilized well. The theory would help students to make rational decisions and make effective conclusions. This would help in lessening the problem of cyber bullying. Additionally, a meta-analysis of rational cognitive behavioral theory would provide comparable effectiveness. This would produce a better result in conduct disorders and encourage students to avoid questioning behaviors that might affect their performance. This will reduce the problem of bullying other innocent children.
Implications for Research and Practice and Ethical Concerns
The research practice might affect the findings of the study. This is because the smaller number of people who would be sampled maybe unwilling to reveal data. This is because the population that would be sampled may not be willing to reveal data. This is one of the limitations that may hinder the expected outcomes. Human services may be affected because of different ethnic background. These ethnic groups might have their own cultural practices that may impact the role of human resource when providing education programs. Moreover, the different cultural setup may hinder human resources when they are passing across knowledge.
The research skills can affect the human services practitioner, affect transformative and the social change in the society because of the unethical issue student bullying others. Bullying is unethical problem that may affect individuals in the society. This is because it contributes to stress and it may result in death due to traumatized and suicide committed. The research skills may enable human services to have become sympathetic toward the groups that have undergone bullying in school. It might psychologically affect one especially the resource manager who may become concerned with the way students suffer in schools.
The concerning ethical issues is to control bullying in school and have empathy towards the fellow students. Parents and teachers should work together in order to eliminate school bullying. This is vital because it is one way of exercising ethical issues (Ellis, 2006). They should punish bullying students in order to help other who might be bullied and suffered from stress or commit suicide. It is essential for parents and teachers to provide guidance and cancelling in order to enable students to avoid bullying their fellow students. Encouraging ethical issues such as empathy and love among the students are crucial because it will help students to performance better.
In conclusion, employing intervention and prevention programs would help to lessen school bullying. School bullying has become a common issue in most schools. There are varied literature books that have tried to explain the way these programs are essential. This is because they help in preventing or lessening school bullying. Carrying out cross-sectional studies as one of the intervention program is essential. This will provide adequate evidence that bullying behaviors constitute, hence providing a solution to it. The bullying intervention programs can only become successful if they incorporate some of the recommended issues. Coherent set of strategies would help in solving the problems caused by bullying in schools. It is vital to carry out intervention program individual because it will enable to one to recognize factors that contribute to school bullying. They examine the effectiveness of carrying out anti-bullying programs directed towards bullying reduction. Students joining new learning institutions should be trained on the way they should behave in a learning atmosphere.
One of the theoretical and conceptual frameworks that would be focused on is the cognitive behavioral theory. This theory aims to solve dysfunctional behaviors of an individual. The theory is linked with the student’s bullying behaviors in school because of the irrational decisions they make. Additionally, qualitative research is one of the methodologies that would be employed in gathering information. Research question and hypothesis would be used in testing the project. The smaller sample techniques would be used and pilot or cognitive testing would be used in collecting data. The expected results include better results due to the use of intervention or prevention programs and cognitive behavioral theory. Lastly, the implications for research, practices and ethical concerns would be recorded.