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Family-centered programs theories and concepts support early childhood enhancement in development and learning. Family-centered programs are based on cordial, beneficial association between the educator and the child’s family. It helps children in learning an environment that is consistent and maintains family goals.
Concepts of Family-centered Programs Theories
Firstly, evaluate your audience, young children and parents learning how to manage their children or even university undergraduate or graduates. The analysis will provide guidance on the teaching strategy to engage. Need for Emphasis on the importance of mother to son attachment and its impact because of the child’sbeing paramount. Give a reason for a child’s devotion to its mother. Let both the baby and the mother recognize the importance of mother’s attributes to the child’s behaviors.
Parent’s Strategies for Teaching and Implementing the Attachment Theory
A teacher must consider various issues in the curriculum before teaching the parents on the attachment theory. For instance, parents are shown the importance of preparing for pregnancy, childbirth and nurturing. These factors prepare the parent psychologically and mentally to cope with the situation in advance.
When they are feeding their children, they should feed them with love, and let them show it in their eyes. The parents are further advised not to get irritated, if the child does not swallow or pushes it back. Touching the child now and then assures that parents are still around, and theyare to protect them. Sleep is particularly crucial for their development; make sure they sleep safely both physically and emotionally. Do not let them fall asleep crying.
Parent practicing attachment theory seeks to understand in detail the psychological and biological needs of their children. Attachment theory helps parents not to expect unrealistic child behavior. It teaches parents the developmental stages the child goes through, and how to handle the child in each stage. When this is done, both parents and the teacher training them will avoid frustrations associated with bringing up a child. (Arnall 2007). Re-directing a child is more effective than spanking or grounding one. Arnall advocates for listening, gentle correction and modeling, as opposed to punitive measures. Attachment theory submits vital survival requirements, in order for the child to effectively communicate his needs without a fear of intimidation and rebuke.
Values or benefits of mother-child attachment are depicted in several ways. For instance, natural birth, as opposed to adoption, weaning the baby at the appropriate time, homeschooling, feeding your child organic food and finally co-sleeping.
However, according to Dr Sear, a parents do not have to follow this set of rules in bringing up their child, rather, teachers should encourage parents to get creative, when it comes to their child’s needs and figure out how best to respond to them. The emphasis lies more on responsive and secure attachment.
Finally, parents are advised to give their children room to develop. This can be achieved through letting children do chores, always giving them a chance to find a solution to simple problems and finally, letting them know that they should give more.
Teachers Strategy for Teaching Attachment Theory
According to this theory, the relationship between a mother and the child, whether agreeable or imperfect, forms the foundation of the love that the child will develop with other human beings she or he encounters with especially in the adulthood. Grown-ups experience insecurity or security they experienced in early childhood. Teacher’s teaching attachment theory must identify the nature of the child. This is done to be able to maximize on it effectively. The content of course can be taught by building upon the fundamental ideas.
Enhance Stress-free Environment
Attachment theory is especially significant when dealing with a stressed child. All their lives, children are resilient when they become attached to one individual. It is necessary for a child to be able to trust at least one adult, because this pulls him or her away from the stress. A stress-free child will grow healthy and have a sound mental development.
Children usually get stressed when they are sick, tired or afraid. In these situations, they search for that one person who comforts them and makes them feel secure. If that person is not available physically and emotionally, then the child gets stressed. It is necessary for the educator to establish the emotional status of the baby.
These are activities pre-school children should be able to do on their own. These skills are learnt from an early age. They include but are not limited to; eating, grooming, dressing and social skills. It is a duty of every parent and teacher or caregiver to establish a routine, learning and timing, rewarding and penalizing, and selection of an appropriate prompts.
How to Teach Self-help Skills
Move from one physical assistance to another. Teach them to pull a chair today, let them do themselves tomorrow. Always give them a chance to learn.
Teachers should seek professional advice from specialized individuals, like child psychologist. It is recommended that an educator runs an investigation on occupation therapy, learning resources and assistive technological devices.
The developing of rewarding systems aids in child appraisal. It encourages children to perform. Rewards should be based on natural activities, such as using a handkerchief.
Family-centered approach must be accompanied with appropriate actions, for instance, holding a cup to letting the child do it.
Meditation is an effective practice of reducing stress. Practice meditation with the children, if you are their teacher or even the parent. Make sure they take it seriously and let them know it is important. Meditation combats stress. It is a mean of relaxing the body and achieving the deeper peace. Meditation is a complement to stress and depression treatments.
Educators must be careful on how they handle potty training. As a teacher, analyzing the readiness in a child is crucial. A baby may be ready to use the toilet developmentally, but be not emotionally ready.
Empowerment is prmoted by developmental theory and research. It refers to both young children’s feelings of worth, and a sense of being needed. It is a psychological aspect that affects over all view of life and approaches its challenges. Nurturing young children requires giving them significant attention. It also means encouraging them to strive towards independence and security (Karen 2008).
Children will be empowered when they connect what they learn in classrooms to what goes on at home. Learning should be integrated with familiar routines. Connect language learning and literacy into playful and child will like the experiences.
Empowering is a sense of being important and effective; however, since children are young and inexperienced, they may not feel empowered (Karen. 2008).
Researchers advocate some strategies to the teachers and parents to empower the pre-school children. The following are just but a few mechanisms that enhance children’s empowerment.
The greatest number of children says a teacher reading to a class at any level was the thing they remember and enjoy the most. Reading aloud is the best literacy development activity of a classroom and at home. Reading aloud improves the readingproficiency in children. Materials heard tend to stick more to child’s mind than those read. It enforces the lifelong reading. In addition to enlargement of vocabulary, reading aloud connects oral and written language. It is a mean of fostering emotional ties with a positive attitude and imagination arousal (Antony & Ula 1995).
Sharing real life stories with children may also be helpful. The Educator can just reframe the story, so that they do not identify the person, also to match their young age and what they can easily understand. Stories should be on current issues of interest to the child or a hobby they like. A child learns best, if taught with examples and things he or she can identify. Remember to put more emphases on the point a child is expected to deduct from the story. Do not overexplain,unless the story becomes boring to the child. Elaborate, if only he or she asks.
Create a Conducive Environment
Children learn well by observing and repeating whatever actions they see. There should be consistency between what we say and what we do. Children watch and learn, and in most cases, their actions are a reflection of what they see around them. Therefore, it is true to state that children are like small scientists ready to explore and experiment.
Let Them Explore
Parents are advised to give enough room for exploration and opportunity to play and act. Do not fill the child’s head with rules. Let them make mistakes and learn from them. This helps them build on their dreams and experiment their ideas. Remember notdo be scared to say I do not know.
To empower pre-school children, means helping them discover their talents and unique skills by giving them space to learn meaningful thingsto develop cognitive skills and problem solving techniques. They must be given enough exposure to the world, in order to become mature.
Building self-esteem starts when the child is an infant; by the time children start pre-school, these children have a strong base for self-confidence. Teachers and parents improve on the child’s self-confidence, so that the children maintain this throughout their lives.
Teaching a Parent to Promote Self-esteem
Give Unconditional Love
Unconditional positive regard towards the child will increase his or her esteem. Parents should bestow the approval, even when the child behaves improperly. Children who are given conditional regards may learn to perceive themselves as being worthwhile only when they are behaving in socially approved ways. Their self-esteem, therefore, becomes shaky, and their confidence reduces. To maintain self-esteem, they may need to deny their genuine feelings, interests and desires. They learn to wear masks, or to do social facades to make others happy (Jeffrey 2011).
Talk to Your Child
According to Bradbard and Endsley (1994),talks between parents, teachers and children should become normal daily activities, both at home and in preschool. These talks, for example, may be based on what their friends did and said. Do this during dinner or on your way home, when picking them from school. Do not make this talk sound like lectures. Make your talk as friendly as possible. This is because this conversation acts both as a communication to the child, and as an avenue for the parent and child exchange information.
Nurturing Feelings of Belonging
It may be too early for preschool children to base their self-worth on how other children of their age treat them; however, they are aware when they get left out. Giving the child skills to play well with others enhances their esteem and improvement on getting along well with others. Parents should respect, respond and listen to their young children. This makes them feel loved, appreciated and respected.
Act as a Role Model
Someone can never give what he or she does not have. Parent with self-esteem problems will transfer this to their children. With Self-confidence, there is a high probability that this will be reciprocated in your preschool daughter or son.
Always be Happy
Laugh and display a positive attitude, even when there is a mistake. This will help the child understand those mistakes are ok, because they make grounds for correction. Children who make mistake show willingness of getting new experiences, in addition, learning new things.
Teachers Strategy for Enhancing Self-esteem
When a child puts effort and gives satisfactory performance, it is always beneficial to acknowledge it and celebrate with him or her. It encourages the child, if congratulated and shown happiness about it, when he or she masters something new. Select an activity that they know they can handle, and that does not need extra effort from the child. Always show them their capability and let them know they can do it better (Warren and Martha 2002).
Point out Their Strength
It is not recommended at all to compare one child to another, especially if they are her friends or siblings. When they express admiration for another child, let them know that they too have a unique skill others admire. Put more attention to what they can do better, and help them forget what their peers are proficient in, compared to them.
Make the child know that it is not all about excellence in the field, but having fun with the tools and equipment available. Encourage the child to appreciate these tools, so that they can have fun when using them. This enhances some connection to the world outside their homes.
Attribution theorem gives a guideline on bolstering self-esteem in small children. It increases their sense of ownership, responsibility and viewing mistakes as a second chance of making things better. This need drives teachers and parents into seeking measures to ensure that these children succeed and develop strategies to enhance their self worth.
It is highly advisable to encourage children to have play partners. Playing with their peers gives a child the experience, he or she needs when they get to a formal school system. Statistics show that, children who had a chance to play with their peers at preschool age had a better relationship with their peers compared to those who did not (Ladd and Price 1987).
Robert & Katherine (2005) in their book admit that the concept of role-play, or role taking, emphasizes both the cognitive and effective sides of social interactions. In the role-play, children adapt the role or character of another person. They must consider what the other person understands, believes, thinks and feels. An experience with role-play fosters both intellectual and ethical development. Role-play in small groups can increase the child’s self-esteem. When a small group of children engages in a role-play, each child should be given an opportunity to contribute (Robert and Katherine 2005).
Self-esteem in children enhances close relations with their friends, as well as having confidence in them. It creates a sense of security. To raise their self-esteem, being a role model will do the trick. Identify a child’s weaknesses and strengths and avoid dwelling so much on what they cannot do. Parents should be encouraged to help their children to be responsible, accept and understand a child’s learning difficulties and be careful not to magnify them. Parent should encourage their children to make decisions and let them learn from their mistakes.
A child’s behavior affects the way he or she relates to other children of the same age. These skills are termed as peoples’ skills in some literary works. A child who lacks these skills is considered to be anti-social. Anti-social children have troubles in interacting with their peers.
Strategies for Teachers to Teach Pro-social Behavior
Teachers should be able to assist a child recognize his or her abilities. This, in effect, enhances the cognitive ability of the child in knowing he or she can make things happen. Let them know they are capable of doing something unique.
Parent-child relationships get extended to the teacher when a child goes to preschool classroom. There several approaches to enhance pro-social skills example are looping. Looping is where the educator makes predictions and consistency, so that the child can develop physically and socially.
Parents should learn to give their children opportunities to play with other kids of their age. It is also extremely beneficial for parents to play with their children; it is both fun and a child picks one or a few social skills from the experience. Pro-social skills are intentional behaviors that are beneficial to others. Example of such skills is sharing and assisting others.
The best way of promoting this skill for parents is playing with their preschool children. Parents should not dominate the play rather they should let the child be a master of the game. Do not try to correct the child; instead, follow the child’s ideas actively. This is beneficial to a child in several ways namely; they learn skills inherent in competent fellow preschools. Playing with children makes them feel valued and effective play partner of their fellow peers. Balanced child-parent play instills a positive attitude outside the family compound. It gives them confidence and eagerness to play with others.
Family-centered Programs and Their Importance
For family-centered programs to be effective, educators must understand the child’s family traditions as a foundation for developing a curriculum that is extracted from home and community knowledge and experience. Family practice and interactions are studied to determine the functions, and purposes of literacy within families; programs are developed around the context needs of family members (Benjamin and Jerome 1996).
Lessons a child learns at home and from his family members are the primary influence on the child’s development. Professionals also play a role in the learning activities of the preschools. They get involved in family-centered programs by appreciating the role a family plays in learning development of the child. Family understands the professional aidin participating in a decision made about the child’s progress in the classroom. The professionals create a friendly atmosphere, where all stakeholders participate to the child’s learning developments. Finally, in education, educators must provide feedback on how the child is doing. This information is essential, so that the family can know how to advance the well-being of the child.
Sharing the real life stories to children may be helpful. Just reframe the story so that they do not identify the person, also to match their age and what they can understand. Stories should be on current issues of interest to the child or a hobby they like. A child learns best, if taught with examples and things he or she can identify. Remember to put more emphases on the point a child should deduct from the story.
Survey and experience have evidenced that the most crucial learning age begins at infancy. At this age, a child absorbs information quickly than any other time in his or her lifetime. This happens because, at this age, brain growth and development is extremely fast. That is why these programs should be facilitated and made effective, because they have a lasting effect on the baby, both physically and emotionally.
Family centered program facilitates effective learning, because it focuses on both the child and the family. Educators effectively help children, when they meet their families, parents and friends. This assists in developing a deeper understanding of the child’s, both inner and outer circle. Thus, the programs help a child to develop in a favorable environment. This is because childhood education is the base on which future education stands.