African Americans realized their freedom in 1865 after the northern won the civil war. There was hope that things would work on well. Reconstruction was the main issue during that time but from 1877, the situation was unwelcoming for the African Americans. While reconstruction was running full stream, the African Americans were given education as well as insufficient income including other things (Dray 11-24). The Republicans triumphed over the Democrats and the support given to blacks from the south was the downfall of the reconstruction process. The Supreme Court now had the power to overrule anybody in the south. Without any protection from the central government, the whites prevailed in their supremacy methods amongst them and brought down the African Americans in unethical manner. The Supreme Court could not dictate on anything on matters of discrimination, lynching or segregation.
The less serious although offensive discrimination and segregation would be managed in the states at the south, as the central government could not deter them. The states in the south controlled education, transport and most vitally important the prejudice, police and separation was ultimately introduced. The undermining of the African Americans was as a result of the Supreme Court. The 14th amendment which granted the African Americans new life and freedom was passed in July 9, 1868. However, this culminated with the introduction of the laws of Jim Crow in 1876. This is the point at which segregation was realized in transport, schools and so on.
There was some significant improvement in the system where new rights came up in 1890 and the blacks could have a chance of voting. The African American segregation was evident in many places. This was realized in churches, parks and restaurants among other places. These are some of the issues that confronted the African Americans. The discrimination put them in affected move to real freedom normally as other citizens. The African American vote was limited and that means they had no much voice. The equality laws were massively destructed owed to the lenience on the acts of hate against the African Americans in the south. The African Americans could not bear it anymore and thus resorted to react to the injustice they were accorded with (Middleton 23-37).
African American Organizations
The African Americans formed organizations and institutions to address their concerns. It was a humiliating affair for the African American because they would not progress. This intimidation was severe towards the end of 1800s to about the 1920s (Hahn 5-21). Some of the leaders of protestors amongst the African Americans were people like Booker T Washington and Du Bois. They were very influential during this period and got a lot of support as they fought for their rights. Unfortunately, there was no co-operation between them and therefore created flaws in the campaigns.
The African American progress was hindered by their disagreements. The approach applied by Booker T was to deal with economic issues initially and at the same time, he encountered the white supremacy in the majority lives of people. Du Bois approach was volatile and handled the problem going first for their civil rights before getting the economic benefits. These two leaders though assisted one another fell apart after Du Bois forcefully evicted Booker T from the Niagara Movement established by William Monroe in 1905.
Another leader advocating for the African Americans was Ida Wells who founded the anti-lynching movement in 1880s. The organization arose to bring to an end the violence against the African Americans. The goal of the organization was to make lynching a federal act of crime and prevent local agencies of law from participating in crimes of hate. Some northern women were in support of the movement which only became successful later in the 1930s. Wells fully supported the strike organized by the African American cotton pickers. Fifteen of the African Americans were lynched at this time.
By, 1928, the African Americans had not fully attained their civil rights but had began slowly entering into American society as they had already acquired some voting rights among other issues. The African Americans had received significant freedom from slavery and got some of their rights (Bailey 77-9). They were in most cases defeated in court and at times threatened with violent actions. However, the foundation for the future of the African Americans civil rights was laid by a visionary group of individuals by 1928. The leaders established crucial institutions and organizations of education to fight for the African American civil rights.
There was a new breed of elders and increasing number of artists, professionals and writers who embraced Du Bois' idea described as "talented tenth" that became increasingly effective and active by 1928. It was during this time in 1928 when Oscar De Priest won the first Congressional District of Illinois becoming the first African American Congressman though as a Republican. This is was a great achievement for the African American.