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Male and female reproductive system
The Male Reproductive System which functions as the producer, transporting the cells and the semen into the female reproductive system and also producing the sex hormones. The main systems found here include penis, scrotum and the testicles. The penis being mainly important during sexual intercourse and urine passage. The scrotum holds the testicles where it acts as the protective gear form the testicles by regulating the temperature. Testes which are normally two in number are normally responsible for the testosterone which is the main male sex hormone and for sperm production. The seminiferous tubules are the tubes responsible for sperm cells production (Marieb, 2000). The epididymis is the channel for transport and storage of sperm cells. The vas deferens an internal organ transports sperms through urethra in the ejaculation process. The main function of the urethra is to give passage to urine outside the body and ejaculation. The seminal vesicles are attached to the vas deferens are the producer of fructose for sperm survival and motion. The prostate gland with location down the bladder produces additional fluid important in sperm nourishment. The Cowper's glands with location at the sides of the urethra release a fluid for lubrication and acid level regulation (Marieb, 2000).
Female genital system consists of the uterus for protecting developing fetus and releases vaginal and uterine fluids to pass the sperms to the fallopian tube. The ovaries act s the producer of the female egg cells. The vagina which combines with external organs at the vulva comprises the labia, clitoris and urethra. The ovaries which act as the producer of ova links via the Fallopian tube through to the uterus. The fertilization takes place at the oviducts after which zygote starts its development. The menstruations result in the case where the ovum is not fertilized (Hadley, 2000).
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The major issue with the glands which are found within the respective organs is the fact they located all over the body. They are of numerous nature and for this case serves different functions depending onto the place where it's located. Some of the functions which are associated with these glands range from the blood sugar level control, cell metabolism, the menstrual cycles in the females, digestion and finally the reproduction in both the males and females. The major glands considered here include pineal gland, the hypothalamus, thyroid and parathyroid glands pituitary gland, adrenal glands, pancreas, thymus, and male and female gonads. The pituitary glands which are always found below the brains and they operate as the regulators to other organs and thus the name master. It is always known that the regulation of the gland is always done by the hypothalamus and act as the central link to the nervous system. The hypothalamus is the producer of the antidiuretic hormone which acts as the regulator to the water levels in the body and especially urine formation. Other hormones released by the pituitary gland include the growth hormones for the tissues growth. The gland also produces the follicle-stimulating and the luteinizing hormones which are very important in the male and female reproductive systems (Hadley, 2000). The prolactin hormone is very essential in the milk formation in the mammary glands. The thyroid gland which mainly produces the thyroxine and the triiodothyronine which are grouped under the thyroid hormone are very essential muscles growth and other activities like the carbohydrate metabolism. The other hormone produced by the thyroid glands is the calcitonin hormone which is mainly essential in the regulation of the calcium levels in the blood system. The other gland which is very essential for the normal body functioning is the adrenal glands which are very small in structure with the location traced at the kidney (Hadley, 2000). The adrenal gland has some several layers where the outer layer known as the adrenal cortex produces different hormones which regulate reproductive development, mineral and carbohydrate balances among other functions. The inner layer called the adrenal medulla produces the epinephrine and the norepinephrine that are important in the nervous system. The pancreas is another important endocrine gland which produces insulin and glucagon hormones, the two hormones are very vital in the regulation of the blood sugar level mainly glucose. The insulin increases the blood sugar level incases where it is less while the glucagon reduces the same in a case where it is seen to be in excess (Marieb, 2000).
The essay brought out the picture of the male and female reproductive system and the major endocrine glands with the hormones they produce which are very important in the normal body functioning.