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This paper explores the types of jobs in the information systems field and the demand for each job, prediction for the nature of IS jobs in the future and the skills that will be required; how important programming skills will be for the future systems analyst and where programming will be carried out. It also covers on the meaning and resources of Object-oriented analysis, design and compares the traditional object-oriented approach. Finally, the paper sheds some light on agile methodology and its types.
Keywords: information systems, agile methodology
There are many types of jobs in information systems. Each job comes with its demands. Information system involves transmission and recording of data via computers, internet, software and network technology. Professionals in this line of work must form, use and maintain these technologies in order to benefit themselves and give service to their clients. Help desk technicians assist customers in diagnosing, computer repair and troubleshooting. These technicians need computer education courses. Network administrators install and manage Local Area Networks. This comes in hand with networking of databases, sharing of network and printers resources, security maintenance and software operations. The administrators require a Bachelor’s degree with special certifications and, also, some training or experience. A Webmaster creates, updates and maintains the web. They require a degree in web design, knowledge in computer software and web design programming languages like HTML, Java and Flash. Database administrators are responsible for data backup, restoration of lost data and securing data from unauthorized access. They require education in computer science and experience in database administration. PC repair technicians deal with installation of software, hardware repair and upgrades of the computers. IT Security manager is responsible for securing computers from hackers and thieves. They need courses in hacking and security of technology. Computer systems analysts are responsible for assessing and making recommendations for an organization’s computer systems to facilitate their effective operation. They need a Bachelor’s degree in computer science or in the information science. Software programmers are responsible for development and coding of computer programs. Programmers need education on computer science, database experience and familiarity with computer languages like C++. Future predictions show that nature of information systems jobs are likely to change in many diverse ways. Currently, positions in information system jobs continue decreasing and the situation is likely to worsen in the future. The ever rising economy and the government cuts continue hitting on all businesses causing the closure of some of them If these conditions are not dealt with, because of international factors, careers in information sector are doomed in the future. In terms of education, information system is likely to advance because of the ever changing technology. This means that professionals in information systems have to keep getting familiarized with the from time to time emerging and evolving technology concepts to adapt effectively for them. This will make it easy for such professionals to integrate well into the jobs in their field of expertise in the future. The future’s information system will require vast knowledge and skills in mastery of robotics. According to Joseph Coates, Robots will have taken most of the jobs in 2020. The issue of hackers has become a major concern, this means that future skills in securing information will be far much advanced as more and more interactions are made online. In the future, programming skills will be important to systems analyst in the following way:; they will be able to give advice to organization regarding, the coded programs, they will be using and they will also have an added advantage over the programmers when it comes to job acquisition. Programming work will be done by programmers inside a company as they will have to be employed on full time basis. Due to the rising concerns of security, it will be credible for organizations to employ their own programmers rather than assign their work to independent programmers. (www.cio.com)
Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is an approach widely used in software engineering as it aids in development of large scale applications to independent modules. OOAD improves the maintenance, modifiability and reusability of software. OOAD is made up of objects. Each and every object is classified according to class, data elements and its behavior. The object-oriented approach is better than the traditional approach / structured system development because it improves productivity and reduces maintenance costs of the system and it can, also, produce reliable, maintainable and safer code. Object-oriented analysis and design approach focus on identification objects and its activities. Shortcomings that come with the traditional approach include a risks of carrying forward incomplete or incorrect analysis over design and construction and the decomposition process in the traditional approach, could lead to unstable designs. Object-oriented approach molds a business problem and makes it understandable for a computer. Object-oriented approach is more appropriate than the traditional approach in situations where a customer wants better systems at a cheaper costs, when projects need to be done on time, when system businesses are becoming more and more competitive, when system changes need to be done fast and when the maintenance of the same systems are lower (Ambler, 2000).
A methodology is a formal process that is used to create software while Agile methodology is method used in managing projects in the field of software. This implies that there must be planning, coding or writing of a database. Agile methodology was based on foundations of the traditional waterfall sequential development methods that were outlined in 1970 by Dr. Winston Royce. Extreme programming (XP) is a type of Agile methodology. It is a software development methodology, whose work is to improve the quality of software to match the client’s requirements. It improves the quality through five ways: courage, simplicity, feedback, respect and communication. Other types of Agile methodology include: Scrum, Crystal, Velocity tracking, Kanban Development, Agile Unified Process (AUP), Essential Unified Process (EssUP), Open Unified Process (OpenUP), GSD, Agile Modeling, Exia Process, Lean Software Development (LSD), Feature Driven Development (FDD) and Dynamic Systems Development method (DSD). Scrum is a lighter project management outline that describes a minimum set of process elements. (Beck, 2001)