Basically, global culture has adopted a path opened by economic globalization. Needless to say, it has evoked external products for consumption and as such it is often thought out as to threaten both local and national cultures. In this context, it is important to bring out the point that globalization is the aspect of the unexpected, uniform and as well disruptive conditions that occurs across previously invariant boundaries (Mobley 2006, p.146). This is to suggest that globalization is accompanied by some notable changes occurring in some current state of symmetry.
In other words, globalization at its least description means that there is the interconnection of people across large geographical distances. This is accomplished by means of doing same sorts of things and the same experiences as well. Again in this context, globalization takes in the factors of people diffusing which means that there is the spreading of information and connecting of people through practices that are common along with the aspect of having shared experiences. More to this point, globalization brings about interdependence which translates to action in one place bringing about effect on other people in another distance place (Mobley 2006). Furthermore, interdependence brings about people becoming more organised while being subjected to common rules.
As well, a consciousness regarding the connection between people grows to a point whereby the shared culture is realised since it translates to the rules that give meaning to the shared world. Following this point, globalization affects various aspects of life and as such, the media has not been excluded. Therefore, it is imperative to bring out how the media globalization has taken place, what it is and the effects or the impacts it has had on culture and national identity as far as the US is concerned.
Categorically, media globalization has to do with the interdependence of media in the sense that there is the interconnection of people across large geographical distances. This is to mean that there is the aspect of the media interconnecting across the globe and as such, coming to a point whereby the media shares a common world .In fact, what happens in one part of the media affects the others in the distance regions. Arguably, media plays a great role in an economy in any state. So to speak, it contributes so much to the United States' economy and therefore, it becomes an important sector owing to its role in the economy of the state.
As a matter of fact, media involves products such like films, video, radio programming, recorded music, books, magazines, newspapers among others as such. Considering such like products Televisions and radios have been greatly been in use to disseminate pictures, music, information, news and words across all the regions covered by a country (Rantanen 2005). In this sense, such a dissemination within a country helps to build up a country's point of shared experiences bringing about a sense of community along with nationhood in a state and as such given the example of the United States.
In this context, it is important to bring out the point that technology advancement has enabled the erosion of communication barriers which had been in the past brought about by time, space and national boundaries and as such, this has greatly contributed to the media's globalization. In line with this point, technology development has brought about media globalization in the sense that there is rapid and enveloping sharing of information around the world. This has therefore contributed to the greater interdependence in terms of both cultural and political aspects of various nations.
Complete reformation of media systems into a single global media system has been pointed as the backbone of the media globalization. Arguably, the media has contributed towards ensuring that there is global interconnection in the sense that music, films, books and even Televisions carry and export national cultures to other parts of the world or rather from one part of the world to another (Jan 2009). Cultural diversity in media programming in America has been witnessed whereby there has been a representation of the minority groups in the radio and TV's news broadcast.
In connection to this point, media globalization has brought about many of the countries coming to a level of having their own televisions, music and magazines among other as such that are different from those produced in the US but rather appealing from a world's general point of view. It is evident that even local music, films and videos in most of the countries seeks to address the world as whole given that media products are meant to find a market share in the international market. So to speak, the media has come to a point whereby it has to address the international or rather the world and as such focuses on a global market. Due to this factor, it is inevitable that the media has to be interconnected.
Another point to note is that global instructions and companies like international Telecommunication Union allocate satellite orbits, standards for faxes, telephones, mobile phones, internet connections and broadcast frequencies. In addition, global telecommunication companies like Cable and Wireless have been given to the responsibility to run a large percentage of the world's optic fibre cables and satellite among others (Jan 2009, p.67). There has as well been an increased penetration of media technology in most of parts of the world with most of the parts watching TVs and Listening to radio programs. Moreover, in places whereby the local language is the only language understood, translations and news in the local language of the particular people has been exercised. Music, videos and films along with programs in the local language has as well been witnessed.
Along with this point, there were ongoing talks on the media being americanised. However in the course of time, media industries from other countries across the globe have come into play. In regard to this point, there are media firms like AOL, Time Warner found in the US, Bertelsmann in German and Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation in Australia just to mention a few. Others like BBC specialise in world news. Accordingly, Hollywood films and TV studios which are represented by the Motion Picture Association of America have been operated globally in the sense that they have branches in other countries and as such they control the operation of such branches (Jan 2009, p.69)..
Likewise, there are also recording companies which operate internationally. Along with this cable and satellite TV of which they commonly served the Americans and Canadians together with some Europeans in the past, have been pointed out as to be expanding in the current times to serve other countries in the world. Following this point, it is therefore evident that the world is experiencing the issue of media globalizing whereby there is a high interdependence in the field of the media across the border with the media sharing the same sort of information and experiences.
Effects of Media Globalisation
Media globalisation remains as an important subject of study in the contemporary world. This is as a result of the coming of the digital age which ushered in different media mediums of communication and interaction across the globe. Importantly, the coming of personal computers and the internet opened doors for speculations that the world would become a global village within on time. However, the current age is a true reflection regarding the fulfilment of these speculations. With this in mind, there are serious transformations that have occurred across the globe especially in regard to national identity and culture. At this point therefore, it is vital to mention the effects of media globalisation on national in different areas of the social, economic and political life of people within a particular region and in this case, the United States.
One of the effects of media globalisation has been the transfer of cultural values and virtues from one nation to another. However, whereas there has been a transfer of cultural behavioural systems from one nation to another, some of the cultures from specific nations have had a greater influence or rather impact than others. For instance, the culture of the United States of America has taken roots across the globe, with even those countries with a communist and socialist background embracing the American culture. Notably, Morris & Waisbord (2001, p.viii), the coming of digital technologies and systems that transcend geographical limitations, coupled with the unfettered worldwide expansion of media and telecommunications companies, represents the latest assault on state sovereignty -that is, on the capacity of states to rule within a certain territory without intrusion from other states. In this respect, most nations across the globe have formed their own territorial cocoons that are ruled by a particular culture. For instance, most of the American cities such as New York are ruled by a particular culture such as rap culture, hip hop, etc. This point brings out the fact that media globalisation has been one of the uniting factor of people across the globe as different people share ideas, visions, values and virtues. As a result of this, people from different parts of the globe have been united by specific cultures.
Apart from creating culture cocoons or rather territories that are ruled by specific cultures, media globalisation has also been found to create new cultures that are generic of the traditional cultures that existed in different parts of the globe. In this respect, the coming together or rather interaction of different cultural groups has resulted in the creation of generic cultures that are totally different from the traditional cultures that existed before. For instance, rap and hip hop is a music culture that emerged from the integration of the traditional American cultures as well as other cultures that immigrated to the United States such as the Latin, Spanish and the African American culture. In reference to Kraidy (2007, p.66), since all cultures are always hybrid, the assumption of erstwhile purity is untenable, and as a result hybridity is conceptually dispensable. Therefore, media globalisation has furthered the way cultures evolve across the globe and in the United States resulting in new cultures that are a combination of two or more cultures.
Media globalisation has also resulted in the production of programs that are meant to address the entertainment needs of different genres of audience across the globe. In this respect, people from different backgrounds in the United States as well as from other parts of the globe have different cultures that have influenced the programming of the media in order to satisfy each and every need of these people. With this in mind, one can argued that whereas certain programs in the United States could easily attain the highest number of audience with a short period of time in the United States, these programs are no longer famous. This is as a result of the emergence of new cultures that have different cultural values as well as needs in terms of entertainment. This is further worsened by the fact that most of the emergent cultures are generic or hybrid and therefore, they are unable to fit into the entertainment needs of the existing cultures.
There has also been a shift in gender roles as another gender effect on people within a particular cultural setup. To begin with, it is important to understand that the woman remains as the most discriminated gender in the society. However, the emergence of the feminist culture in the second half of the 20th century resulted in a forced change of perspective towards women by the society. In this respect, every culture that has emerged in the recent times especially in the United States has often been forced to accept the women and treat her with equality just the way the man in the society. The media has continued to play a critical role in elevating the woman above her challenges in the society. In reference to Semati (2008, p.), the more women had higher status and eminence in society, the more they were expected to be covered and in seclusion. This has since changed since women in the United States and across the globe have had an opportunity to share ideas that have led to liberation of women from men's oppression, though not in totality. Therefore, the media has contributed greatly towards the formation of a culture that can tolerate the success of women in the society, though in some cases, this has remained as a difficult issue to men.
Influence of Media Globalisation on Identity
National identity remains as one of the most important aspect of a country in its approach towards integrating with other global cultures across the globe. In this respect, most nations across the globe have defined different strategies that are meant to guarantee that national identity is maintained (Samovar, Porter & McDaniel 2008, p.65). Essentially, this has been achieved through the implementation of restrictive measures that are supposed to filter the content that is received nationally from other different backgrounds apart from what is already known. However, irrespective of these measures, there has been an increased proliferation of other cultures in the local system and structures which has resulted in a shift in national identity. This has been facilitated by media globalisation.
To begin with, media globalisation has contributed to the enlightenment of people on different cultures that exist across the globe (Buksi%u0144ski & Dobrza%u0144ski 2005, p.255). Prior to this, people embraced and easily accepted the role that was played by the existing culture and therefore found their identity in this culture. However, the opening of the media industry to the world in the United States not only opened up economic and political structures of the United States but also opportunities of developing a new national identity by individuals in this nation. Notably, out of the new cultures, there has emerged a different identity or rather identities of individuals.
This is to mean that different cultures have their own identities. Therefore, an introduction of a new culture would definitely change the course of the existing identity. The wide variety of the existing cultures has created an aspect of choice whereby individuals are required to choose or rather identify themselves with a certain type of culture in the American society (Buksi%u0144ski & Dobrza%u0144ski 2005). For instance, through media globalisation, the hip hop culture has found new grounds of prospering in the United States and across the globe. In line with this, people, especially the young people in the United States have learned the culture and at this point in time, most of them identify themselves with certain musicians who are key elements in this culture.
To begin with, the globalisation of the media has served as an important agent of strengthening the identity of different groups of people who have embraced a particular identity in the society. For instance, the media has continued to play a critical role in marketing of different product to the community that identifies totally with rap culture (Ang et al. 2009). This aspect of the media has enabled the rap culture members to be served well in any part of the globe. For instance, through the internet, one can access rap music online as well as buy them, or just download for free and play the music on their personal computers. This has enhanced the existence of the identities that are formed within a particular period of time.
Furthermore, most people within a particular culture have continued to identify with the cultural backgrounds by speaking the same language. Importantly, the use of a particular language within a particular culture defines the identity of these people. In this regard, globalisation of the media has contributed to the satisfaction of people who speak the same language by ensuring that these people are able to communicate with one another as well as help them understand their identities better. The invention of the internet for example has assisted people with Spanish and Latin identities to learn more from their peers as well as keeping themselves up to date with their culture.
Influence of Media Globalisation on Culture
Following the media globalization influence on the US culture, it is important to bring out that the media has greatly influenced the American culture. So to articulate, the past has witnessed the Americanization of the media whereby the media was inclined to the west or rather America's way of all operations related to media industry. Taking the music, Television shows, films and the flow of information through the media, its content is actually an expression of culture. This is to suggest that media has brought about the change of lifestyles, migration in terms of culture, global-local relations, fashions and the way of doing things (Pieterse 2009, p.Vii) In line with this point, the American culture is no longer dominant but rather there is an aspect of the culture being replaced since it has to embrace other cultures from the outside world. This is a factor that has neutralised the strong American culture.
This is given to the reason that the media globalization has brought about the media having to play the role of satisfying the other cultures apart from the American culture. This is due to the factor that globalization calls for the media to serve the world from the larger point of view (Rantanen 2005, p.25). Generally, the world from general point of view constitutes of different people with different cultures from different countries. In order to serve the world in this case with efficacy, there is need for the media to adopt a culture that will translate to an effective service to a mixed culture seeking to grow interpedently sharing the same experiences and culture. More importantly, the media has been forced to focus on addressing these needs of different cultures rather than focusing on the indigenous cultures that existed in the United States. Furthermore, the influence of these cultures on the media has increased tremendously, forcing the media to shift its approach to meeting the needs of different cultures.
Globalisation has resulted in a total integration of people from different parts of the globe as well as enhancing the transfer of cultural attributes from one country to the other. In line with this, media globalisation has resulted in the overall growth of different cultures across the globes, whereas others have been forced to die due to their inability to resist the new cultures. To begin with, it was observed that the media played a vital role in the enhancement of cultural ties across the globe. Therefore, different groups of people were influenced towards subscribing to certain types of cultures. For instance, among the predominant cultures in the United States are the hip hop culture, rap, the Spanish and the Latin culture.
Whereas the flourishing of different cultures in the United States has been depended on globalisation of the media, it is also important to mention that these cultures have influenced media programming. In this regard, the media content that is currently given out does not target indigenous American cultures alone but the transformed cultures within this country. This has been necessitated by the fact that different cultures have continued to grow and the only way to address some of their needs is by creating a media environment that would meet these needs. Similarly, the TV and the radio have developed programs that are made in a certain language such as Latin and Spanish in order to communicate with people from these cultural backgrounds. Furthermore, there are different radio and TV stations that have been created specifically to address specific needs of specific people in the society. For instance, there are rap and hip hop stations across the United States that have been formed.