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Professor Jennifer Wicke has brought up many interesting ideas which even are mostly very much difficult to grasp. The papers and articles formulated by her bears very careful readings and comments which make it easy to understand various possible dimensions of postmodernism that are relevant for legal academic work and relevant to the lawyers as well. Expository studies and essay by Jennifer Wicke investigate the ideas, expound on idea, evaluate the evidences, and finally set forth the concise and clear arguments. The essay collected here comes from the back of the book "Tess of the D'Urbervilles" written by Thomas Hardy and is edited by John Paul Riquelme. The stated book, with red and black cover having the stated essay on its 571 page written by Jennifer Wicke with the title "The Same and the Different: Standard and Standardization in Thomas Hardy's Tess of D'Urbervilles". The Riquelme's referred volume of Tess of the D'Urbervilles is closed by stated strong essay by the professor Wicke informed by the "Cultural Criticism".
The essay is accomplished through contrast and comparison, analysis of effects and its causes, definitions and examples, and so forth. In this essay, Jennifer Wicke explores centrality of the measuring and labeling along through the novel. Moreover, she charts and list downs the significance of the gestures and such acts against the rising trend of standardization by the end of last decay of nineteenth century. As it is argued by the Wicke in her essay, Tess is "synecdoche: the part [stands] in for the whole" (571) just like that of Tess who is a one among many women who have evaluated and write against the womanhood, that comes to stand for (or as) only one type of woman. The stated type of woman is one whose standards for womanhood labeled her as "Damaged Goods" and like that. The reading by the Wicke is depending upon appreciation by her readers regarding the "Market Place" with in both the Hardy's culture and the novel by the Hardy. She has discussed in her essay that how the invisible markets tried to replace the fair of markets as the social changes and engine of economy have been changed with the passage of time (573).
She has placed the heroine of the novel and the novel itself as a marketable and sellable goods and commodities as the item for sale in the markets and shops (574). For the Jennifer Wicke the novel is participating in the moment in which the standard and its notion are going to be crystallized in various dissimilar and different practices of culture. It also participates for Wicke as a moment the word standard is concretized as the concept of culture (575). Along this moment, the face of Tess is functioned as the "market Token" (583). Her value (more specifically and importantly her devaluation and loss of her face), predicts and estimates the human cost and prices of the standardization processes. The essay has asked from its readers about the person who is responsible for the formulation and setting of standards, the standards i.e. The Tess ends up on scaffolds (587). The staggering and beautifully formulated analysis by the Jennifer Wicke is demonstrating the usefulness and necessaries of the Cultural Criticism in order to investigate literarily and even closes the Riquelme's edition of the novel at its amazing note.
As it is suggested by the paper that it is common perception the postmodernism is the set of historical description and conditions of our currently prevailing cultural setup. while seeing in this way, one can asked from self that is it true of law?, could this be the description of current cultural situation? Somehow these questions might be posed by asking whether legal culture can deal with all these forms of current cultural reforms. Answers of these questions give the relatively static modern or even pre-modern vision of law. Can we be able to cope up with the newly emerging communication and computer technologies? Whether or not our intellectual property regime up to it? Lawyers and others, for this are thinking about the law in the stated way. Her paper by clarifying the sort of cultural changes happening all around the law and these clarification helps to think about the challenges the legal culture is being facing.
The Wicke is suggesting totally different questions including whether or not the law is itself the part of this new cultural scene? Might the doctrinal material of law, methodologies and institutions themselves be described as postmodernism? The cultural elements in its relationship to the law, to the national cultures and the institutional machinery, it is very much reminiscent of the international legal modernism that has been around since the League of Nations.
On the other hand, other things including the European Community programs in 1992 are seems not only to intensify the pragmatic and an institutional modernism but also to develop a form of politics and legal cultures that breaks in some ways from the Weberian idea of an administration of delegated powers or of modern mass party democracy. So in the legal culture, as suspected elsewhere, the elements that suggested both a repetitive continuity with the modernist era and rotation or break toward alternative perhaps postmodern forms, can be located.
The essay of Jennifer Wicke suggests that the postmodernism might be thought as the set of historical and past descriptions and conditions of currently prevailing cultural situations and conditions. The essay suggests completely different styles of question than that of typical and traditional set of questions to ask including whether or not the law itself is the part of postmodern culture. The doctrinal material regarding laws, various methodologies adopted and institutions established are itself are postmodern or not and a like that. The professor Wicke has developed he set of various attitudes about the cultural developments and the various attitudes which she has associate with three discussed analysts including Baudrillard, Lyotard, Baudrillard. The postmodernism is the way, as stated by her, of behaving, dressing, talking and acting for those who are cultural studies persons. As long as it is not understood in categorical way and fashion, these maneuvers could become part of tool kit of legal sciences. The delicacy has been arisen due to the reason that the Jennifer Wicke is not the only reviewer and writer of the cultural aspects.
The essay written by Wicke in Tess of D'Urbervilles by Hardy has critically introduced new case studies in cultural criticism and the critical introduction to the work for the advanced undergraduates. The critical cultural criticism done by the Wicke is the anthropology of the novel. Her investment in cultural anthropology provides the exploration of place for sacrifice and ritual in Tess that shows how the Hardy had reversed and typical and traditional outcome and use of ritual culture. The referred essay by the Wicke is parallel to that are written by the Garret Stewart and Riquelme, in arguments and subject which are very much difficult to differentiate at the same time. This is because the fact that it would be misleading to the readers to conclude that the outputs and outcomes of the stated methodologies are at the same time will be misleading. As it is stated above that the essay "Standard and Standardization in Thomas Hardy's Tess of the D'Urbervilles" is the reading focusing over the culture and contain the cultural criticism, Wicke has focused on labeling throughout the in it.
She has formulated certain gestures and the acts which represents her criticism on popularity and rise of the standardization which refers to the implementation of designs, measurements and guidance in order to overcome the lacking of disorganized systems. While the purpose of criticism over the standards and the standardization as it is stated in the essay can be to help with the independence of compatibility, safety, quality, and commoditization and customization. The essay of Wicke returns the concepts of what is called as the "Echoic Language". The echoic language is initially mentioned in the introduction which infect make the essay less useful and effective and somewhat less original than that it might be. Since her reading and use of stated phenomena has been already sketched, it is not used in its true sense. This echoic language freedom and uncertainty in the Tess of the D'Urbervilles placed the Tess in anti-realistic tradition and also considers the Wicke's consistent doubling and reversal to the argument that such developments is the culture would be resulted in to the chiasmatic culture.
Finally, Professor Wicke has developed the set of attitude about this postmodern cultural development, attitudes that she associates with three major postmodern cultural analysts that she discusses including Jameson, Lyotard and Baudrillard. It might be said that postmodernism is a way of dressing, behaving, acting, and talking for those who are the cultural studies persons. In this view, the postmodernism would be the critical and academic style which has been exemplified by the postmodernists.