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Most of the Arabian Peninsula is occupied by Saudi Arabia. On the west lies the Gulf of Aqaba and Red Sea where as to the east is the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia is connected to United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Jordan, Yemen, Iraq, Oman and Kuwait via a causeway. Rub al Khali (Empty Quarter) which is the world's largest Sand desert is situated in Saudi Arabia. Oil reserves in Saudi Arabia lies in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia.
Oil reserves were first discovered in 1936 and production started during WW2. The wealth that came with it helped to provide education and free health care and not collecting taxes from its people. Saudi Arabia joined the Arab League in 1945 and took a vital part in the Israel War to which this day the government of Saudi Arabia still does not recognize Israel as a country.
Saudi Arabia was a complete kingdom until 1992, at which time the royal family initiated the country's first constitution. The legal system is based on the Islamic Law also known as Sharia. Saudi Arabia is not a homeland just for the Arab People but also the birthplace of Islam, the second largest religion in the World. Islam was founded by the Holy prophet Mohammad. Mecca and Medina the two holy cities for Muslims are located in Saudi Arabia. In 622 the Islamic calendar began which was the year of the Hijra (Mohammad's jourey from Mecca to Medina).
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the creation of King Ibn Saud who was a descendent of the Wahhabi leaders. He took control over Riyadh and made himself leader. The Wahhabi dominance continued and soon Hejaz was conquered along with Nejd. The regions were combined to form Saudi Arabia in 1932. In 1933 the region of Asir was also combined into the country. When Ibn Saud died in 1953, his eldest son Saud started eleven year sovereignty which marked the resentment to Gamal Abdel Nasser who was bringing radical Arabism in Egypt.
When Saud fell ill in 1964, the power was given to Crown Prince Faisal who was Prime minister. In 1975 Faisal was assassinated by his own Kinsman which shook the entire Middle East. Prince Khalid who was Faisal's brother started to give support to Egypt during the extraction from the Sinai Desert after he came into power. In 1982 when King Khalid died of a heart attack Prince Fahad took matters into his own hand and chose Abdullah his half brother as the crown prince.
While King Fahad held the throne the terrorist Attacks of September 11 2001 occurred in the United States which strained the relations between the two countries. One of the reasons given by Osama Bin Laden for the attacks was the presence of American troops in the holiest city for the Muslims for the past 10 yearrs.
In 2005 for the first time elections were held in Saudi Arabia in which half of the previous council members did not win. When King Fahad died in 2005, Abdullah assumed throne. He helped to broker talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government in 2008 which was the first attempt since the armed conflict started. The Taliban disengaged ties with the Al Qaeda.
In 2009 there were bold steps taken by the King to rearrange his government, encouraging reformers, controversial government officials were fired which included a senior judge and the head of religious police. He also selected the country's first ever female minister for the education of women.
During the popular rebellion spreading throughout the Middle East, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was spared because King Abdullah still is a famous figure among its citizens. There is stability because of the oil wealth which was not seen in countries like Egypt. Still there has been a demand for the press on of broader public liberties especially for women, for more housing schemes and employment. In order to prevent protests, King Abdullah upon his return from Morocco where he was recovering from surgery on his back announced a mega 10 billion US$ package which will help the people of Saudi Arabia to start their own business, purchase homes and even marry.