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1Compare and contrast the work of Pietro Cavallini and Cimabue. How do they differ in style and technique?
Both were Italian painters developers of Roman religious works. Pietro Cavallini was an Early Italian Revitalization painter who is credited for contemporary Roman school. He played a major role in the development of some of the important works in church i.e. Navicella. His work broke with Byzantine style and developed to plastic, delusion kind of presentation. On the other hand, Cimabue was related to Gathotic art and founded International Gothic style. He also played a role in the development of modern form of Byzantine art. Though not as famous as Pietro he is also credited for the development of modern Italian Renaissance.
2 Discuss the rivalry between Siena and Florence in the 14th century. How did this political climate affect the visual arts of both cities?
These two cities in Italy depict a similar picture of late-medieval hubs that played a major role in the development of Europe on political basis. As the military and economic poer of the two cities developed, they collided with each other in an attempt for each to make their territory grow. There were series of battles won by each but at the end Florence emerged the stronger city. Amazingly this rivalry was carried to the visual art with development of sculptures and paintings by artists from both sides that depicted this rivalry. The fact that Florence had won the wars brought a confusion of the appearance of Renaissance art.
3. In what ways did the Franciscans' ideas about natural phenomena affect the production of Italian art in the 13th and 14th century?
Franciscan Ideas demonstrated love for natural phenomenon of sun, water, moon and air among others. This led to the development of new artistic designs in Italy that touched almost all fields that depicted the brotherhood between the different natural phenomenons such as brother sun, brother moon and so on.
4 Describe the stylistic elements introduced by Giotto, and discuss why his work was so important for the development of Renaissance painting?
His art had tthe tendency resulting to firmness of outline and naturalism of visage and gesticulation. He played a major role in the development of three-dimensional representation on a flat surface and thus bringing a rebirth of the painting art that seemed buried and forgotten. This was indeed a renaissance of the art by managing to differentiate great artist and craftsmen or mere artisans.
5. How did the sculptural programs of the Gothic portals differ from the sculptural programs of the Romanesque portals?
Between the 9th and 12th centuries, Romanesque portals involved a combination of Byzantine styles and Roman, a major characteristic of this program. The title was arrived at due to a key feature it posed of barrel vault that looked like the conventional Roman arch. As a result the churches were dull and had very thick walls. On the other hand, the sculptural programs of the Gothic portals involved a new look of the churches that were heavenly, colorful and bright with the new application of flying buttresses. The buildings were tall, had thinner walls and a lot of windows fitted with glasses.