Globalization is an accurate concept for describing the contemporary cultural environment and more so the culture of music where it consists of rational actors who are systematically organized and operate according to formal rules (Dollar &Collier, 2001). Theories of globalization give a clear look at the concept. When we look at the theory of world polity we analyze music as consisting of highly rationalized and universalistic work, and since music always raise many feeling in human beings through surfacing the past memories and creating new ones in the process, all these it does while satisfying human emotions. Globalization creates development of new innovation therefore makes people forget about their culture but music will create the ability to help identify a culture since different cultures have different forms of music.
Culture and music
People construct cultural identities which associate them with a particular group as well as distinguish them from others (Arce,, 2008). Unlike before, cultural differences are now taking a primary role in the lives of the people. Many nation-states in Europe displayed such cultural differences. For example, it was the very reason which driven Slovenia and Croatia to separate from Yugoslavia. And although Yugoslavia seems intact, the fact that Slovenia and Croatia had declared their independence, within the country it is obvious that there is an issue about ethnic backgrounds (Bosrock, 1999). Religion is a very important social factor in the present political situation in the world for two reasons. One is that it stabilizes social identity. Second it is the basis for ethical orientation (Von Bruck, 2006). The religion in a nation clearly helps in the development of its culture through time as well as binding people thereby creating a cultural identity. Any nation would try as much to retain its culture and identity in spite of the constant recreation brought about by of globalization and modernization (Aiftinc%u0103, 2008). Then again, culture is not static. It grows out of the customs and traditions. It can also adapt to the changes. Webster's Third New International Dictionary defined it as "total pattern of human behavior and its products embodied in speech, action, and artifacts and dependent upon man's capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations" (Rothkop, 1997).
Culture can influence globalization but globalization can also influence culture since one can measure the other. The progress of a civilization can be measured by the decline of cultural distinctions. Several aspects of culture are affected by globalization. These include lifestyles, religion and language. The United States encourage the development of a world which bridges the differences among nations through common interests. This certainly affects one of the most important aspects of culture which is language since the United States with its proposition also ensures that English would become the common language. Then everything from telecommunication, television, radio, music, safety standards would be based on Americans. It must not be viewed as something negative since this aspiration actually aimed to unite the world. It is acceptable to say that the American technologies are at the cutting edge hence enabling globalization (Rothkop, 1997). This not only benefits the United Sates but the world market which would accept it.
Globalization has economic roots and political consequences but then it also places culture at the centerfold of the global environment (Rothkop, 1997). Globalization although it has man positive effects, it has allowed cultural differences (Bosrock, 1999). Nevertheless, it is globalization which creates the so-called global culture which is characterized by unified culture throughout the world in spite of cultural differences. According to Benjamin Barber, global culture is evident in the communication systems, information and trade. Symbols such as internet, DVD, TV to the fast food chains such as MacDonald clearly were able to penetrate barriers between nations and succeed in inducing a global lifestyle. The expansion of trade stimulated the culture (Aiftinc%u0103, 2008). Before 1914, globalization was hardly observed since only a small part of the world participated in the process. Communication and transportation then were also a factor since both were much slower than it is today (World Economic Outlook, 1997).
Globalization is the process of integrating the economies and societies of nations around the world thereby allowing unrestricted flow of goods, services, investments across borders and currencies between countries. It was thought that it can be ticket towards agricultural modernization, industrialization, urbanization and hyper consumerism. If this happens, then there would be a mutual benefit among countries. Hoping that through globalization, prosperity would be attained, several nation-states pursued it. It seems though that it can result otherwise. It has many positive effects but it is accompanied by increasing social and environmental destruction around the world (Center for Alternative Development Initiatives, 2003). Globalization stripped the geographical limits and state’s sovereignty (Social Science Research Council, 2008). It does only have the power to bind. It also has the power to divide the nations further should tensions arise in international relations.
The desire to achieve economic boom and prosperity of the nations can be a threat to the environment. This makes it difficult for policy makers to decide how to sustain economic gain without compromising the environment health. It is important to consider sustainable development since ecology is part of the human dimension. They too will suffer if the environment suffers. The pursuit for global sustainability is everyone’s concern hence nations must collaborate their strategies and systems in order to create an approach which would benefit everyone. It is already started by the United States with their use of biofuel but this has negative consequence too as this can lower agricultural produce (Fiksel, 2006).
It would be inevitable that conflicts may arise since variety of cultures is interacting. It should be remembered however that everyone depends on each other. Even if one is to say that they are independent, does not necessarily mean they are excluded from issues about international relations. Independent individuality or cultural self-sufficiency never exists (Von Bruck, 2006). Everyone gets to participate in the concerns of the world. As for the case of economic sustainability, everyone has his own role to perform for this to be possible. The realization that all living things depend on each other comes from justice. Andrew HurrellJohn Rawl claimed that “Justice is the first virtue of social institutions” when it is applied in international relations (Foot et al., 2003). Justice then becomes the center of cross-cultural relations. With its presence civilizations do not clash instead they help each other and struggles to achieve economic, political and cultural aspect (Von Bruck, 2006).
All dimensions of a human being including economic, ecological, political and psychological aspects of communication are a vial part in any relationships between people. Then it is important that these aspects should be examined for its effects in cross-cultural ethics. Taking into account the present shape of the world, it is a matter of justice that the present status quo, which is based on unjust international, social, and economic as well as communication structures, shall not be continued. The effects of status are somehow forgivable if viewed through the European, American, or Japanese perspective but cannot be acceptable for Chinese, Indian, and African perspective. Ethics and justice in international relations would be observed in the economic relations between the rich and poor nations. Nations should acknowledge that one should never use the other’s identity for ones own gain. They should also acknowledge each language as valid as ones own. Thus none should insist on ones language as dominant over the other (Von Bruck, 2006).
The world is a global society which is united by international relations. Yet it is as well divided since it keeps its borders and protect from the invasion even from its close neighbors. The borders which are geographical and political limits cause the division of the world since within it a various culture is fostered. The difference in cultures of each nation gives it its identity which is unique of it. In spite of this division, the nations of the world meet to share its culture through trade. The world is now integrated and economically connected. In this way nations are able to help each other which are very important in sustaining the global culture.
World Cultural Theory
The next theory that will help in analyzing how globalization is an accurate concept for describing the modern cultural environment is the theory of world culture which looks at how each component in the up-and-coming world order, takes form in accordance to the others that are next to it. For example, as nation-state turn out to be subject to a universal principles resulting from an ordinary idea of humanity, nationality in these societies grow to be relative to one another. Likewise, the real politic widespread in the intercontinental structure also becomes related as civilized principles invade this music arena. The relative association of societies as fraction of the inter-state scheme occurs strongly in revived concern about nationwide identity.
How World Cultural Theory Acts
Although globalization fails to create a common culture where everyone hold the same viewpoint and principles, it does generate a single field in which all musicians pursue their goals by a purposeful comparison with others in the music industry using at least some ordinary standards as yardsticks. The music composed by different actors cannot be the same because different states or nationalities have got different issues to tackle. If we take examples like features created in music in emergent countries are fairly unlike from those of the urbanized population.
In the music industry, the general ideas and methods implicated in globalization essentially are interpreted and engrossed in a different way. These ways are according to the vantage position and history of particular cultural groups and in some cases the generation of some of the ideas are done strategically like for example in global market, where the global marketers generate limited traditions about the assumption included in difference sells of their products. More generally, global music captures the way in which homogenization and heterogenic actions intertwine.
Through topics such as these, it helps in exploring the potentials or the reality of amalgamation of cultures and standards and what some musicians feel is the utilization of their traditional heritage. One vital aspect that people fail to explore is that some of these influences can also be more than a weigh down and an over transgression of boundaries. These factors create an enlightening atmosphere including a re-declaration of one’s own traditions. With the music becoming highly beneficial, entrepreneurial venture that it is at the moment, is no surprise that it is restricted and regulated by an only some large multinationals that subsist is today’s globe.
It is important to show it clear that even though confirmation is being offered in a positive aspect of globalization through music, there is an overwhelming confirmation that literary imperialism is supplementary more than it seems on the outside look. One must have in mind that literary imperial ism, globalization and the establishment of a global community is a big business. Several groups of people are getting profit at the expense of other people’s loss of cultural distinctiveness. These people are sold in terms of their culture and their communal heritage therefore creating new levels of an improved community.
With every growing of production fan clubs and Britney replicas, the world is revolving out into stages for pop cultures and sensational unachievable goals. Through the methods that the human race is going through, we discover ourselves smudging in the lines of dissimilarities that once continued to living. Basically what the theory explains are the cultural outline that are interconnected together so much that it becomes almost impossible to differentiate among them because of the fact that they have so many comparable characteristics. These dissimilarities are the ones creating the urge for global development and therefore due to the widespread allocation of industrialized music and the loss of compositions that represented cultural aspects and distinctiveness, civilizations are created in a way that they are not maintaining a common sense of universal pride and identity.
World System Theory
The last theory on globalization as an accurate concept for describing the contemporary cultural environment especially in music industry is the word system theory. The theory explains globalization as being a process that was completed in the twentieth century. It was the time the industrialist world structure became broad across the globe but since that world-structure has sustained some of its main components over several centuries, globalization therefore does not comprise of a new experience. When twenty-first century rolled by, the industrialist world economy became a crisis therefore in line with the theory's leading fan, the present ideological celebration of globalization is in certainty with the swan song of the music systems of the world
How World System Theory Functions
This theory deals with how the strong survives, where being strong means growing hard in core areas thereby standing to what is right even if it creates problems between the state and the musician. Musicians therefore to be strong need not to dependent on any one group that are within the state they are serving the benefits of the economically influential classes therefore absorb financial losses and helping to uphold the self reliance of tangential areas. The bottom line is that Recording Corporation in the U.S function on a gross turnover margin this help the government with the revenues needed in the economic sector. In U.S the business of music creates a wider field for tax collection because the music created sells at a higher rate (Kennedy, 2004).
Executives are not the only people who have control in extending culture through music around the world, superstars and pop stars are now performing a large role in extending the new culture, thus there is an increase in the spread of new ideas all round through executives and artistes. Artists such as Britney Spears, Michael Jackson and more set out on world wide expeditions to stretch the scope of their music all through the world.
The artistes have recognized the ability and sheer numbers of information they can generate by not just having their focus on one area. They sometimes do not overcome development completely, but are of assistance in creating a hybrid variety that has been shaped using characteristic s of a people’s own culture and including them in foreign attributes. This gives us a positive aspect of music for example, within Jamaica there “ragga” which is a type of music and it is a rap-influenced form of reggae, therefore showing a change in the music industry.
On the other hand there are very unhelpful affects which come with such manipulation. Alongside the influence of the lyrics generated from rap, there comes a lot more than what Jamaica bargained for. It has come to the attention that with local ragga star like Elephant Man, they create songs with lyrics that have a negative effect on a sober mind. Like his song on “Badman nah run from police in a shootout” he has included violent behavior and hatred and recently in his concerts, their have been brawls, injuries, firing of guns and even death. Therefore as positive as they appear to incorporate distant features into their songs, it curves out to have horrid influence.
Artistes have also had a key role in upholding music around the world like some U.S. based artistes seeking to develop a relation between U.S. and other world music artists. This they are doing all the way through promoting the foreign artistes. The musicians on the other hand hope to demonstrate to the American public the happiness that can be gained from speaking through native languages and unheard song beats (George & Margaret, 2003). There is one of the main frights connected with the globalization of compositions is the making of a global monoculture.
There is a research that examines how the global monoculture has penetrated all through in every angle of the earth. The research shows that North American corporate traditions, together with the music business, are trying to wipe out local tradition based on knowledge, intelligence, artisans and standards. Artisans have specifically been interfered with through the fact that the item for consumption that they have been marketing has been out of date and flooded by the pop-star rubbish that has been in use over the world and shattered traditions.
The globalization comes through the premise that corporate America is not only wiping away a peoples way of life, but it is put in the ground of passed so as not to have a culture’s overall distinctiveness since it is said that this is an issue of self identification and that all the enlightened have stopped being religious. This civilization has in the end become profitable it is said that people in this globe feel the need to be dissimilar from one another for many explanations. It may maybe because of supremacy or lowliness, but there is a by no means a craving need to be an individual. Music therefore has led to people being open minded, this is the effect that music has had global effect and thus within transitions to create a global market and thus these artists have established not only how to create money and stay alive in a industrialist world, but have found a way to gratify more than one civilized groupings.
By basing on this concept it can be vividly depicted that that the cultural environment has been greatly influenced by the music industry globally in the sense that new forms and varieties of styles have emerged. In most cases the impact of music as a factor has been greatly depicted in the developing countries whose citizens in most cases try to emulate and have a similar attribute like the music celebrities
The main extenders of culture and change have been profoundly linked to the manner in which the music industry globally has been totally commercialized such that all that is in music depict the availability of money (David & William, 2003). In most case, the musician especially in the developed world have more often that not been shown as having lots of money during the production and the release of their songs a factor that has shifted the perception and the culture of nearly everyone in terms of music.
Globally from this aspect it is evidently observed that there has been an aping of the culture being depicted that involves the lavish lifestyles being observed from the videos and clips released by the musician and. in most cases the portrayal of woman as the center of attraction a factor that has also been globally focused upon. It has been vividly observed that the impact of globalization has totally been seen and practiced as a single unit on the basis of music. This in reality demonstrates the factor that the culture being focused upon by music has been immensely felt worldwide.
The work being considered as a single village, all that is being developed kin terms of music from one part of the world can easily be focused upon on the other side of the globe a factor that has really diversified the music industry globally. in essence by focusing on the impact of the music globally it is well defined that a culture change has been depicted by its impact to the global population therefore attributing the global change of music on culture