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When we look at the massive changes that have taken place in our lifetime, the ones that often spring to our mind are changes that have direct touch in our daily lives, and those with the growing meaning related to the internet or other radical scientific discoveries. Such changes are easy to spot and are reasonably easy to adapt to. However, fundamental shifts on a situation or scope of a problem are much trickier to realize and often the adaptation to these changes are much less manageable. According to Xanthoudaki et al., this development is described as a paradigm shift (p.49).Depending on one position in the wave of change and how individual an is open to alternations, paradigm shifts can be considered as stimulating opening for transformation or opportunities that lead to frustration and disorientation.
Mccarthy asserts that transformation in the field of arts have been countless and difficult to comprehend. In a more clear way, there has been a mix of change in the demand and supply factors in the environment of art. From the changing forms of need for arts, there have been diverse outcomes such as a more dissimilar population, more split leisure time and heightening rivalry from shooting entertainment and leisure industries (p.1)
Changes in visual art
New technologies have transformed the way in which the arts are developed, circulated and used up and with changes in the organizational environment of the arts', a confusing distinctions has come up between the nonprofit, commercial, and informal spheres; with increased competition for funding. In a compounding effect, these alterations have produced an intimidating number of challenges that have led to significant changes to visual art in areas of painting, sculpture and architecture.
In America three distinguishable institutions have historically influenced the visual arts system and they all have their beginnings in Europe during the 18th and 19th century. These institutions are the public art museums which serves as a key venue where the public can come and appreciate the artworks, visual arts world discourse which comprise the organization of theories and ideas necessary to validate objects of art and associates them to one another throughout a given time and space, and visual arts market where works of visual art are bought and sold. From the last ten years, there has been significant changes and transformation in each of these institutions.
Looking at the Art museums, this particular institution first appeared in the United States nearly150 years ago, and since then, its numbers have multiplied in line with the growing demand in public popularity. Art museums manage and run surprising sums in regard to the number of revenues and assets they have and thus have historically accomplished a mixture of missions that have been in conflict. In the world of arts discourse, there is less control compared to the past in term of deciding on the artistic value of emergent work works of art in areas of painting, architecture and sculpture. The decrease in control has been attributed to increasing nature of the institution as a splintered and pluralistic.
From these changes, there been an emergence of rapid development, growth and division of the market for visual arts thus the outgrowth of new artistic variety. Additionally, market for the visual arts has been distorted from a small market with a closely knit community made up of comparatively few members of individual, into a market place characterized with modernity, specialization as well as multibillion dollar value. These institutions have the fore shaped the patterns of demand for visual arts, features of artist and the organization of the market of visual arts, museums as well as other key visual arts organizations (Kevin et al., )
Change in demand and its effects
The demand for the visual arts is seen in two principal classes: appreciation and collecting.
The degree of appreciation and collecting of visual arts has significantly increased attributed to the popularity of the visual art works and this has led to success in the field of visual arts.
Taking a close look at the fundamental statistics of these trends reveals the growth in the attendance of museum. This is seen as resulting from population growth and increasing levels of education. From these factors, the public perception towards visual art as improved and thus has led to significant generation of sales from museum fees and attendance of art shows. Despite this growth, visual art face challenges from entertainment and other leisure industries (Kevin et al., 17).
While the number of people collecting visual art is comparatively smaller compared to those who visit museums, it figures have significantly risen and at the same time becoming more
Spread in many part of the world particular in the last twenty five years. The growth in the number of individuals collecting visual artworks seem to be increasing due the rising levels of household incomes and at the same time as a result of increasing number of individuals who collect the visual artworks for investmment purposes. As result of increasing demand, artist has come to be appreciated for the role they play and additionally they had increased earnings from both the shows and sale of art works. This has not only improved their living standard but it has also motivated the increase of new artworks in the industry.
Stratification of Artists
Artists are the key players in the field of visual arts. Getlein confirms the significant increase in the number of artist engaged in visual arts as well as the rising diversity in their backgrounds.
It is also evident that stratification prevails between artists and this has influenced their social standing as well as the earnings. With stratification in place, at the top of the hierarchy are artist considered as "superstar" artists. This group of artist has had the art works sold in the international market for of thousands and sometime millions of dollars. Following this class is the "bestsellers" category having their work endorsed and represented by dealers, galleries and auction houses and therefore sold for significant prices.at the bottom of the hierarchy are a vast number of visual artists who struggle to earn a living from artworks. This stratification is caused by the size and changing market dynamics (p.56)
From this categorization, some artist has become rich while some are struggling to make ends meet. Some artists have left their patrons and worked on their own in cases where their works gain popularity. In some cases too, some artist have moved from one patron to another in attempt of getting better earnings. Despite many visual artists being self-employed, a number of them are engaged in no-art employment in order to supplement their income through the selling of artworks. The art market has also changed the way in which artworks are sold and the price they fetch. According to Kevin et al., the market has become transparent, fluid and global. With large sums of money being paid for artworks, many artists have become wealthy with many increasing their ties with their patrons while some making out on their own (p. 29)
Factors like demand and market transformed the area of visual art and at the same time affecting the social, economic and relationships of the artists. With increasing use of technology, early awareness and education, the perception of visual arts as increased in the public domain with more and more people being engaged in collection of visual art both as a way of appreciating and as investment and thus stratifying visual artist into classes.