The architects of Hagia Sophia dome made an effort of creating an ultimate house of god whom they worshipped, which was supposed to be a building of its kind no other building could be compared. The structure of the building implied the actual presence of their god through the aspect of clever handling of light, and also the overall masking of structural elements. This was supposed to imply that the Hagia Sophia was notably held up by god himself and nothing else. The overall construction of the Hagia Sophia can be taken to be an advanced version of the current structural layout of basilica church layout. The dome had a change in the arrangement, as it was slowly shifting the available space from a rectilinear to circular. In this case, the Hagia Sophia was actively creating a spatial experience to equalize the Pantheon, which was its rival. It had elaborated decorations and diffused light which gave it an interior of the divine dome as a sense of being lit from within the structure by the presence of god himself.
The structural designs of the Hagia Sophia dome served a double purpose of submerging the existing structural aspects of the church, which made it to be quite different from Pantheon. The architectural functionality of the dome is believed to be hidden by the available ornamentation. This makes it to be delicate and sturdy, as it is only held up by the will of god, and this makes it to be quite different from Pantheon. Another difference is seen in the case where the Hagia Sophia has a clear combination of a rectilinear layout with a centralized design, making it to be an extraordinary combination of distinct traditions of different churches, and a possible typical pattern of the early Christian way of worshipping.
What was the Iconoclastic Controversy and how did it affect religious and secular art? What features distinguish Byzantine art after the Iconoclastic Controversy?
Iconoclastic controversy moves around the overall destruction of religious images. For example, in both Christianity and Islam, the controversy was mainly based on the cases of Mosaic prevention from creating making graven images. The ban was a case of associating such images with idolatry, of which was not accepted by both religious groups. The early Christian churches were notably against the creation of Christ and the saints' portraits, but such icons have turned out to be popular among Christian worshiping. This has turned out to be positive, with emphasize being on the symbolic nature of the created images.
Byzantine emperor Leo III was opposed to icons, and this was the cause of the Iconoclastic Controversy. A feature distinguishing Byzantine art after the Iconoclastic controversy is the aspect of making sure that real religious image are a correspondence of the exact likeness of the prototype. This is a feature that is considered to be impossible, since it was to be a case of seeing a sculpture as an empty part of spirit and real life.
Discuss the Muslim attitude in art toward representation.
Right from history, the Islamic art has always been a representation of an exceptional beauty that mainly draws from a large portion of its longstanding denial of representation of humans and significant animals in religious art. The Muslim attitudes towards the known figurative art have mixed to some extent throughout the Islamic history and also across varied Islamic cultures. Nowadays, the Muslim community is normally strong when emphasizing on the totality of existence and absolute incorporation of the secular and spiritual. This means that they have readily accepted all concepts and elements that exist within the category of civilizations, cultures, and the possible traditions of the nations they conquered.