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Based on the required readings, the main theme continued to be in focus which is the balance of power following the Napoleonic Wars of 1814-1815. Napoleon Bonaparte had made his bloody conquers in whole of Europe for almost 25 years of his life thus marked the ratification of Treaty of Paris in 1814 signed by the “Four Super Powers” namely: Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and later with Royalist France. The final act was signed on June 9, 1915. This remarkable event took place before the Battle of Waterloo which ended the power of Napoleonic wars. This is a clear indication that the balance of power is very relevant to maintain a fair diplomatic relations to maintain peace and order between the neighboring countries. The treaty was respectively signed by all the famous men who personally went to attend and discuss the matters face-to-face during its Congress of Vienna among other issues concerning the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars and the disbanding of The Holy Roman Empire. Each state in Europe had their delegates of not less than 200 states and the royalties including other smaller groups with aim to end war. This proved to have been very effective for almost a hundred years without war where Russia rose into power followed by Prussia in 1880s until the outbreak of World War I.
Finally, the emergence of the diplomatic schools thought purposely to settle conflicts and wars through the form of diplomacy was a plus factor in settling any disputes that may arise in the future.
The peaceful agreement of the five powerful countries proved to be effective where each one held on to what has been agreed upon: To maintain a balance of power and to keep their own territories safe. Each concentrated to further new developments to maintain their own monarchy after the Congress of Vienna wherein territorial changes had been agreed congruently without languor. Several treaties had been signed to declare their own territories to be legal and binding without imposing any war. One would greatly consider that more territories went to Russia, some to Pussia and some remained a free country while Switzerland remained neutral, thus, the balance of power between the neighboring countries were maintained for years. Russian managed to maintain a good diplomatic relation with the allied countries under the leadership of Alexander and later by Tsar Nicholas 1st after his death.
Nevertheless, there were still conflicts such as in Greece, 1822, as well as the Turkish War with Russia in 1828-1829 to name a few. However, such difference was another case in comparison with the continued peacefulness by most of the super powers during the particular period in history.
It can be analyzed that changes of policies and new political parties after several successions of leaders of each country had risen which changed the landscape of events during this period. After the Civil War of 1830, there was a significant personal dislike between the two leaders of Russia and France wherein both wanted to keep their powers at all cost through its Tsar Monarchy until 1917.
The balance of power continued peacefully from 1815-1850. During its transition period specifically in 19th century, different conflicts in Europe crop up that the five powerful countries opted to discontinue the previous policies and agreements. Prussia emerged as the most powerful among the five superpowers after the questionable policies of Bismarck. Several alliances were formed for security reasons and to erase doubts of each other. At this point in time, Austria was no longer a major factor in Europe.
Chapter 3 of the “Ideological Origins of the Great Power Politics (1789-1989)” by Mark L. Hass has primarily dealt with the concert of Europe (1815-48). The Balance of Power signifies the realignment of territorial lines between the superpowers in Europe with the intention to protect each other and the international order to prevent war. France was usually seen as the foreseen violator of the said agreement. This is a relevant innvestigation as to the original cause of apparent threat caused by Napoleonic wars driven by ideological beliefs hence the alliance made it a point that “no Bonaparte should ever again govern France”.
Mark L. Haas’ argument was that the ideological distance of ruling parties between the different counties can be determined by the degree of threat or pressure that they sense from each other thus the signing of the Treaty of Paris on June 9, 1915 among other issues in relation to other peace treaties and other coalitions.
After 1830, a considerable faction was seen between the great powers in which Britain and France formed an alliance where major changes took place under Lord Palmerston of England while Russia, Prussia and Austria formed their own.
The main points of Force and Statecraft book in Chapter 2 by Lauren, Craig and George was about the Classical System of Diplomacy. It is a sumptuous idea for the emergence of trained diplomats to contain and control international violence through the art of diplomacy. which is very essential to “building a system with a balance of power and concert”.
The same goes with the main points of Hamilton & Langhorne wherein practice of diplomacy is very essential to “building a system with a balance of power and concert”.
The balance of power was very essential in building the peace treaty between the superpower countries with the intention that no Bonaparte shall ever rule France again at the expense of the lives of many individuals. The Treaty of Paris among other issues during the congress in Vienna was a clear indication that diplomacy can be a very effective tool in solving any differences without bloodshed. The Concert of Europe was considered the most effectual form of conservatism and very essential to their crusade in fighting liberalism and nationalism which was foreseen as a serious threat to the peace treaty agreement.